Words related to young
c. 1300, from French Turc, from Medieval Latin Turcus, from Byzantine Greek Tourkos, Persian turk, a national name, of unknown origin. Said to mean "strength" in Turkish. Compare Chinese tu-kin, recorded from c. 177 B.C.E. as the name of a people living south of the Altai Mountains (identified by some with the Huns). In Persian, turk, in addition to the national name, also could mean "a beautiful youth," "a barbarian," "a robber."
In English, the Ottoman sultan was the Grand Turk (late 15c.), and the Turk was used collectively for the Turkish people or for Ottoman power (late 15c.). From 14c. and especially 16c.-18c. Turk could mean "a Muslim," reflecting the Turkish political power's status in the Western mind as the Muslim nation par excellence. Hence Turkery "Islam" (1580s); turn Turk "convert to Islam."
Meaning "person of Irish descent" is first recorded 1914 in U.S., apparently originating among Irish-Americans; of unknown origin (Irish torc "boar, hog" has been suggested). Young Turk (1908) was a member of an early 20c. political group in the Ottoman Empire that sought rejuvenation of the Turkish nation. Turkish bath is attested from 1640s; Turkish delight from 1877.
"military officer who assists superior officers," c. 1600, from Latin adiutantem (nominative adiutans), present participle of adiutare "to give help to, help zealously, serve," frequentative of adiuvare (past participle adiutus) "help, assist, aid, support," from ad "to" (see ad-) + iuvare "to help, give strength, support," which is perhaps from the same root as iuvenis "young man" (see young (adj.)).
French adjudant, earlier ajudant (early 18c.) is from Spanish cognate ayudante. Related: Adjutancy. The adjutant bird is the name given by the English in Bengal to a large type of Indian stork, so called for its "stiff martinet air" [Century Dictionary].
early 15c., aide, "war-time tax," also "help, support, assistance," from Old French aide, earlier aiudha "aid, help, assistance," from Late Latin adiuta, noun use of fem. of adiutus, past participle of Latin adiuvare "to give help to," from ad "to" (see ad-) + iuvare "to help, give strength, support, sustain," which is from a PIE source perhaps related to the root of iuvenis "young person" (see young (adj.)).
The meaning "thing by which assistance is given" is recorded from 1590s; the sense of "person who assists, helper" is from 1560s. The meaning "material help given by one country to another" is from 1940.
"to assist, help," c. 1400, aiden, from Old French aidier "help, assist" (Modern French aider), from Latin adiutare, frequentative of adiuvare (past participle adiutus) "to give help to," from ad "to" (see ad-) + iuvare "to help, assist, give strength, support, sustain," which is from a PIE source perhaps related to the root of iuvenis "young person" (see young (adj.)). Related: Aided; aiding.
seventh letter of the alphabet, invented by the Romans; a modified gamma introduced c. 250 B.C.E. to restore a dedicated symbol for the "g" sound. For fuller history, see C.
Before the vowels -e-, -i-, and -y-, Old English initial g- changed its sound and is represented in Modern English by consonantal y- (year, yard, yellow, young, yes, etc.). In get and give, however, the initial g- seems to have been preserved by Scandinavian influence. Also see gu-.
late 14c., "pleasing, gracious; joyful," from Old French jocond or directly from Late Latin iocundus (source of Spanish jocunde, Italian giocondo), variant (influenced by iocus "joke") of Latin iucundus "pleasant, agreeable," originally "helpful," contraction of *iuvicundus, from iuvare "to please, benefit, help, give strength, support," which is from a PIE source perhaps related to the root of iuvenis "young person" (see young (adj.)).
In jocose cheerfulness or light-heartedness is an accidental thing; in jocund it is the essential idea. [Century Dictionary]
late 13c., "younger, not as old as another," from Latin iunior "younger, more young," comparative of iuvenis "young; a young man," etymologically "one who possesses vital force" (from PIE root *yeu- "vital force, youthful vigor;" see young (adj.)).
Used after a person's name to mean "the younger of two" from late 13c. Abbreviation Jr. is attested from 1620s. Meaning "of lesser standing, more recent" is from 1766. That of "meant for younger people, of smaller size" is from 1860. Junior miss "young teenage girl" is from 1907. In U.S. colleges, "pertaining to the third-year." Junior college is attested by 1896; junior high school is from 1909.
The junior high school is rapidly becoming the people's high school. The percentage of pupils completing the ninth year is constantly rising where junior high schools have been established. [Anne Laura McGregor, "Supervised Study in English for Junior High School Grades," New York, 1921]