Words related to xeno-


Proto-Indo-European root meaning "stranger, guest, host," properly "someone with whom one has reciprocal duties of hospitality," representing "a mutual exchange relationship highly important to ancient Indo-European society" [Watkins]. But as strangers are potential enemies as well as guests, the word has a forked path.

The word ghos-ti- was thus the central expression of the guest-host relationship, a mutual exchange relationship highly important to ancient Indo-European society. A guest-friendship was a bond of trust between two people that was accompanied by ritualized gift-giving and created an obligation of mutual hospitality and friendship that, once established, could continue in perpetuity and be renewed years later by the same parties or their descendants. [Calvert Watkins, "American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots"]

It forms all or part of: Euxine; guest; hospice; hospitable; hospital; hospitality; hospodar; host (n.1) "person who receives guests;" host (n.2) "multitude;" hostage; hostel; hostile; hostility; hostler; hotel; Xenia; xeno-; xenon.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek xenos "guest, host, stranger;" Latin hostis, in earlier use "a stranger," in classical use "an enemy," hospes "host;" Old Church Slavonic gosti "guest, friend," gospodi "lord, master;" Old English gæst, "chance comer, a stranger."

pyroxene (n.)

type of mineral, 1800; from Greek pyr "fire" (see pyro-) + xenos "stranger" (see xeno-). According to OED, so named in 1796 by Abbé Haüy, French mineralogist, "because he thought it 'a stranger in the domain of fire' or alien to igneous rocks." Related: Pyroxenic.

xenelasia (n.)

"prevention of aliens from settling in Sparta," Greek, literally "expulsion of foreigners," from xenelatein "to expel foreigners," from xenos "stranger" (see xeno-) + elatos, verbal adjective of elaunein "drive, drive away, beat out."

xenogamy (n.)

"fertilization by pollen from a different plant," 1877, from xeno- "strange, foreign" + -gamy "fertilization." Related: Xenogamous.

xenolith (n.)

1894, from xeno- "foreign, strange" + -lith "stone."

xenophile (n.)

1922, from xeno- "foreign, strange" + -phile.

xenophobe (n.)

1897, from xeno- "foreign, strange" + -phobe. As an adjective from 1908.

xenophobia (n.)

1903, from xeno- "foreign, strange" + -phobia "fear." Earlier (c. 1884) it meant "agoraphobia."