Etymology
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Words related to while

*kweie- 
*kweiə-, also *kwyeə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to rest, be quiet."

It forms all or part of: acquiesce; acquit; awhile; coy; quiesce; quiescent; quiet; quietism; quietude; quietus; quit; quitclaim; quite; quit-rent; quittance; requiescat; requiem; requite; while; whilom.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Avestan shaitish "joy," shaiti- "well-being," shyata- "happy;" Old Persian šiyatish "joy;" Latin quies "rest, repose, quiet;" Old Church Slavonic po-koji "rest;" Old Norse hvild "rest."
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time (n.)

Old English tima "limited space of time," from Proto-Germanic *timon- "time" (source also of Old Norse timi "time, proper time," Swedish timme "an hour"), from PIE *di-mon-, suffixed form of root *da- "to divide."

Abstract sense of "time as an indefinite continuous duration" is recorded from late 14c. Personified at least since 1509 as an aged bald man (but with a forelock) carrying a scythe and an hour-glass. In English, a single word encompasses time as "extent" and "point" (French temps/fois, German zeit/mal) as well as "hour" (as in "what time is it?" compare French heure, German Uhr). Extended senses such as "occasion," "the right time," "leisure," or times (v.) "multiplied by" developed in Old and Middle English, probably as a natural outgrowth of such phrases as "He commends her a hundred times to God" (Old French La comande a Deu cent foiz).

to have a good time ( = a time of enjoyment) was common in Eng. from c 1520 to c 1688; it was app. retained in America, whence readopted in Britain in 19th c. [OED]

Time of day (now mainly preserved in negation, i.e. what someone won't give you if he doesn't like you) was a popular 17c. salutation (as in "Good time of day vnto your Royall Grace," "Richard III," I.iii.18), hence to give (one) the time of day "greet socially" (1590s); earlier was give good day (mid-14c.). The times "the current age" is from 1590s. Behind the times "old-fashioned" is recorded from 1831. Times as the name of a newspaper dates from 1788.

Time warp first attested 1954; time-traveling in the science fiction sense first recorded 1895 in H.G. Wells' "The Time Machine." Time capsule first recorded 1938, in reference to the one "deemed capable of resisting the effects of time for five thousand years preserving an account of universal achievements embedded in the grounds of the New York World's fair."

Jones [archaeologist of A.D. 5139] potters about for a while in the region which we have come to regard as New York, finds countless ruins, but little of interest to the historian except a calcified direction sheet to something called a "Time Capsule." Jones finds the capsule but cannot open it, and decides, after considerable prying at the lid, that it is merely evidence of an archaic tribal ceremony called a "publicity gag" of which he has already found many examples. [Princeton Alumni Weekly, April 14, 1939]

To do time "serve a prison sentence" is from 1865. Time frame is attested by 1964; time-limit is from 1880. About time, ironically for "long past due time," is recorded from 1920. To be on time is by 1854 in railroading.

worthwhile (adj.)
by 1660s, worth while (one-word form from late 19c.), from worth (adj.) + while (n.). Phrase worth the while is attested from late 14c.
amidst (prep.)

a variant of amid (q.v.) with adverbial genitive -s and unetymological -t. Amidde became amyddes (13c.) and acquired the -t from mid-15c., probably by association with superlatives in -st; the pattern also yielded amongst, against, betwixt, whilst, also archaic alongst (13c.-17c.).

There is a tendency to use amidst more distributively than amid, e.g. of things scattered about, or a thing moving, in the midst of others. [OED]
wile (v.)
late 14c., "to deceive," from wile (n.). Related: Wiled; wiling. Sense of "cause (time, etc.) to pass pleasantly, divert attention pleasantly" is by 1796, from confusion with while (v.).
awhile (adv.)
"for a space of time," Old English ane hwile "(for) a while" (see while (n.)); usually written as one word since 13c.
erstwhile (adv.)
1560s, "formerly," from erst "first, at first; once, long ago; till now" (13c.), earlier erest from Old English ærest "soonest, earliest," superlative of ær (see ere) + while (adv.). As an adjective, "former," from 1903. Cognate with Old Saxon and Old High German erist, German erst.
meanwhile (n.)

also mean while, late 14c., "mean time, the interval between one specified period and another," from mean (adj.2) "middle, intermediate" + while (n.). From late 14c. as an adverb, "during or in a certain period of time." Properly two words as a noun but commonly written as one, after the adverb.

somewhile (adv.)
mid-12c., from some + while (n.).
whilom (adv.)
"at time past" (archaic), c. 1200, from Old English hwilum "at times," dative case of while (q.v.). As a conjunction from 1610s. Similar formation in German weiland "formerly."