Etymology
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weak (adj.)

c. 1300, from Old Norse veikr "weak," cognate with Old English wac "weak, pliant, soft," from Proto-Germanic *waika- "yield" (source also of Old Saxon wek, Swedish vek, Middle Dutch weec, Dutch week "weak, soft, tender," Old High German weih "yielding, soft," German weich "soft"), from PIE root *weik- (2) "to bend, to wind."

Sense of "lacking authority" is first recorded early 15c.; that of "lacking moral strength" late 14c. In grammar, denoting a verb inflected by regular syllabic addition rather than by change of the radical vowel, from 1833. Related: Weakly. Weak-kneed "wanting in resolve" is from 1870.

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Definitions of weak

weak (adj.)
wanting in physical strength;
a weak pillar
weak (adj.)
overly diluted; thin and insipid;
weak tea
Synonyms: watery / washy
weak (adj.)
(used of vowels or syllables) pronounced with little or no stress;
a weak stress on the second syllable
Synonyms: unaccented / light
weak (adj.)
wanting in moral strength, courage, or will; having the attributes of man as opposed to e.g. divine beings;
Synonyms: fallible / frail / imperfect
weak (adj.)
tending downward in price;
a weak market for oil stocks
weak (adj.)
deficient or lacking in some skill;
he's weak in spelling
weak (adj.)
lacking bodily or muscular strength or vitality;
Synonyms: decrepit / debile / feeble / infirm / rickety / sapless / weakly
weak (adj.)
(used of verbs) having standard (or regular) inflection;
weak (adj.)
not having authority, political strength, or governing power;
a weak president
weak (adj.)
deficient in magnitude; barely perceptible; lacking clarity or brightness or loudness etc;
weak colors
a weak pulse
Synonyms: faint
weak (adj.)
likely to fail under stress or pressure;
the weak link in the chain
weak (adj.)
deficient in intelligence or mental power;
a weak mind
From wordnet.princeton.edu