Etymology
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Words related to vice-

*weik- (2)

also *weig-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to bend, to wind."

It forms all or part of: vetch; vicar; vicarious; vice- "deputy, assistant, substitute;" viceregent; vice versa; vicissitude; weak; weakfish; week; wicker; wicket; witch hazel; wych.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit visti "changing, changeable;" Old English wac "weak, pliant, soft," wician "to give way, yield," wice "wych elm," Old Norse vikja "to bend, turn," Swedish viker "willow twig, wand," German wechsel "change."

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vice-president (n.)

also vice president, 1570s, "one who acts as a deputy for a president," from vice- + president. Made into an official rank and given a different meaning (vice = "next in rank to") in the U.S. Constitution (1787).

There seems to be no doubt of my election as V[ice] Pres[iden]t. It will have at least one advantage, that of permitting me to devote more of my time to my private affairs. [John C. Calhoun, letter to wife, Nov. 12, 1824]

Related: vice presidential; vice presidency.

viceregent (n.)
also vice-regent, 1580s, from vice- + regent (n.). Difficult to distinguish from vicegerent.
viceroy (n.)

person ruling as representative of a sovereign, 1520s, from French vice-roy, from Old French vice- "deputy" (see vice-) + roi "king," from Latin regem (nominative rex) "king," which is related to regere "to keep straight, guide, lead, rule" (from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line," thus "to lead, rule"). The species of American butterfly so called from 1881.

viscount (n.)
late 14c., "deputy of a count or earl," from Anglo-French and Old French visconte (Modern French vicomte), from Medieval Latin vicecomes (genitive vicecomitis), from Late Latin vice- "deputy" (see vice-) + Latin comes "member of an imperial court, nobleman" (see count (n.1)). As a rank in British peerage, first recorded 1440. Related: Viscountess.