Etymology
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Words related to ur-

out (adv.)

expressing motion or direction from within or from a central point, also removal from proper place or position, Old English ut "out, without, outside," from Proto-Germanic *ūt- (Old Norse, Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Gothic ut, Middle Dutch uut, Dutch uit, Old High German uz, German aus), from PIE root *uidh- "up, out, up away, on high" (source also of Sanskrit ut "up, out," uttarah "higher, upper, later, northern;" Avestan uz- "up, out," Old Irish ud- "out," Latin usque "all the way to, continuously, without interruption," Greek hysteros "the latter," Russian vy- "out").

Sense of "to a full end, completely, to a conclusion or finish" is from c. 1300. Meaning "so as to be no longer burning or alight; into darkness" is from c. 1400. Of position or situation, "beyond the bounds of, not within," early 15c. Meaning "into public notice" is from 1540s; that of "away from one's place of residence," c. 1600. The political sense of "not in office, removed or ejected from a position" is from c. 1600. Meaning "come into sight, become visible" (of stars, etc.) is by 1610s. In radio communication, a word indicating that the speaker has finished speaking, by 1950.

As a preposition, "out of; from, away from; outside of, beyond; except; without, lacking;" mid-13c., from the adverb.

Meaning "from harmonious relations, into quarreling" (as in to fall out) is from 1520s. Meaning "from one's normal state of mind" (as in put out) is from 1580s; out to lunch "insane" is student slang from 1955. Adjectival phrase out-of-the-way "remote, secluded" is attested from late 15c. Out-of-towner "one not from a certain place" is from 1911. Out of this world "excellent" is from 1938; out of sight "excellent, superior" is from 1891. To (verb) it out "bring to a finish" is from 1580s. Expression from here on out "henceforward" is by 1942. Out upon, expressing abhorrence or reproach, is from early 15c.

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protoplasm (n.)

"substance forming the essential stuff of the cells of plants and animals," 1848, from German Protoplasma (1846), used by German botanist Hugo von Mohl (1805-1872), on notion of "first-formed," from Greek prōtos "first" (see proto-) + plasma "something formed or molded" (see plasma).

The word was in Medieval Latin with a sense of "first created thing," and it might have existed in ecclesiastical Greek in a different sense. It was used 1839 by Czech physiologist Johannes Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869) to denote the gelatinous fluid found in living tissue. The modern meaning is a refinement of this. This word prevailed, though German language purists preferred Urschleim. Related: Protoplasmal; protoplasmic.

pilsner (n.)

also Pilsner, Pilsener, type of pale, hoppy lager beer, 1877, after Pilsen, German town in Bohemia (Czech Plzen) where it first was brewed. Now designating a type, not an origin; pilsner from Plzen is Pilsner Urquell, from German Urquell "primary source." The place name is from Old Czech plz "damp, moist." Related: Pils.

ersatz (adj.)
1875, from German Ersatz "units of the army reserve," literally "compensation, replacement, substitute," from ersetzen "to replace," from Old High German irsezzen, from ir-, unaccented variant of ur- (see ur-) + setzen "to set," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." As a noun, from 1892.
urschleim (n.)
1921, from German Urschleim "original mucus," from ur- (see ur-) + Schleim (see slime (n.)).
ursprache (n.)
"proto-language," 1908, from German Ursprache, from ur- (see ur-) + sprache "speech" (see speech).