Etymology
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transpose (v.)

late 14c., from Old French transposer "transfer, remove; present, render symbolically" (14c.), from Latin transponere (past participle transpositus) "to place over, set over," from trans "across, beyond; over" (see trans-) + ponere "to put, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)). Form altered in French on model of poser "to put, place." Sense of "put music in a different key" is from c. 1600. Related: Transposed; transposing.

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Definitions of transpose
1
transpose (v.)
change the order or arrangement of;
Dyslexics often transpose letters in a word
Synonyms: permute / commute
transpose (v.)
transfer from one place or period to another;
Synonyms: transfer / transplant
transpose (v.)
cause to change places;
Synonyms: counterchange / interchange
transpose (v.)
transfer a quantity from one side of an equation to the other side reversing its sign, in order to maintain equality;
transpose (v.)
put (a piece of music) into another key;
transpose (v.)
exchange positions without a change in value;
Synonyms: commute
transpose (v.)
change key;
Can you transpose this fugue into G major?
2
transpose (n.)
a matrix formed by interchanging the rows and columns of a given matrix;
From wordnet.princeton.edu