Etymology
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time (n.)

Old English tima "limited space of time," from Proto-Germanic *timon- "time" (source also of Old Norse timi "time, proper time," Swedish timme "an hour"), from PIE *di-mon-, suffixed form of root *da- "to divide."

Abstract sense of "time as an indefinite continuous duration" is recorded from late 14c. Personified at least since 1509 as an aged bald man (but with a forelock) carrying a scythe and an hour-glass. In English, a single word encompasses time as "extent" and "point" (French temps/fois, German zeit/mal) as well as "hour" (as in "what time is it?" compare French heure, German Uhr). Extended senses such as "occasion," "the right time," "leisure," or times (v.) "multiplied by" developed in Old and Middle English, probably as a natural outgrowth of such phrases as "He commends her a hundred times to God" (Old French La comande a Deu cent foiz).

to have a good time ( = a time of enjoyment) was common in Eng. from c 1520 to c 1688; it was app. retained in America, whence readopted in Britain in 19th c. [OED]

Time of day (now mainly preserved in negation, i.e. what someone won't give you if he doesn't like you) was a popular 17c. salutation (as in "Good time of day vnto your Royall Grace," "Richard III," I.iii.18), hence to give (one) the time of day "greet socially" (1590s); earlier was give good day (mid-14c.). The times "the current age" is from 1590s. Behind the times "old-fashioned" is recorded from 1831. Times as the name of a newspaper dates from 1788.

Time warp first attested 1954; time-traveling in the science fiction sense first recorded 1895 in H.G. Wells' "The Time Machine." Time capsule first recorded 1938, in reference to the one "deemed capable of resisting the effects of time for five thousand years preserving an account of universal achievements embedded in the grounds of the New York World's fair."

Jones [archaeologist of A.D. 5139] potters about for a while in the region which we have come to regard as New York, finds countless ruins, but little of interest to the historian except a calcified direction sheet to something called a "Time Capsule." Jones finds the capsule but cannot open it, and decides, after considerable prying at the lid, that it is merely evidence of an archaic tribal ceremony called a "publicity gag" of which he has already found many examples. [Princeton Alumni Weekly, April 14, 1939]

To do time "serve a prison sentence" is from 1865. Time frame is attested by 1964; time-limit is from 1880. About time, ironically for "long past due time," is recorded from 1920. To be on time is by 1854 in railroading.

time (v.)

Old English getimian "to happen, befall," from time (n.). Meaning "to appoint a time" (of an action, etc.) is attested from c. 1300; sense of "to measure or record the time of" (a race, event, etc.) is first attested 1660s. Related: Timed; timing.

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Definitions of time
1
time (n.)
an instance or single occasion for some event;
he called four times
this time he succeeded
Synonyms: clip
time (n.)
a period of time considered as a resource under your control and sufficient to accomplish something;
it took more than half my time
I didn't have time to finish
take time to smell the roses
he waited for a long time
time (n.)
an indefinite period (usually marked by specific attributes or activities);
he was a great actor in his time
the time of year for planting
time (n.)
a suitable moment;
it is time to go
time (n.)
the continuum of experience in which events pass from the future through the present to the past;
time flies like an arrow
he waited for along time
it took some time before he got an answer
time (n.)
a person's experience on a particular occasion;
they had a good time together
he had a time holding back the tears
time (n.)
a reading of a point in time as given by a clock;
the time is 10 o'clock
do you know what time it is?
Synonyms: clock time
time (n.)
the fourth coordinate that is required (along with three spatial dimensions) to specify a physical event;
Synonyms: fourth dimension
time (n.)
rhythm as given by division into parts of equal duration;
Synonyms: meter / metre
time (n.)
the period of time a prisoner is imprisoned;
he is doing time in the county jail
Synonyms: prison term / sentence
2
time (v.)
measure the time or duration of an event or action or the person who performs an action in a certain period of time;
Synonyms: clock
time (v.)
assign a time for an activity or event;
The candidate carefully timed his appearance at the disaster scene
time (v.)
set the speed, duration, or execution of;
we time the process to manufacture our cars very precisely
time (v.)
regulate or set the time of;
time the clock
time (v.)
adjust so that a force is applied and an action occurs at the desired time;
The good player times his swing so as to hit the ball squarely
From wordnet.princeton.edu