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throw (v.)

"to project, propel," c. 1300, from Old English þrawan "to twist, turn, writhe, curl," (past tense þreow, past participle þrawen), from Proto-Germanic *threw- (source also of Old Saxon thraian, Middle Dutch dræyen, Dutch draaien, Old High German draen, German drehen "to turn, twist;" not found in Scandinavian or Gothic), from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn," with derivatives referring to twisting.

Not the usual Old English word for "to throw" (weorpan, related to warp (v.) was common in this sense). The sense evolution may be via the notion of whirling a missile before throwing it. The sense of "put by force" (as in throw in jail) is first recorded 1550s; that of "confuse, flabbergast" is from 1844; that of "lose deliberately" is from 1868. To throw a party was in U.S. college slang by 1916.

To throw the book at(someone) is 1932, from notion of judge sentencing a criminal from a law book full of possible punishments. To throw (one's) hat in the ring "issue a challenge," especially to announce one's candidacy, first recorded 1917. To throw up "vomit" is first recorded 1732. To throw (someone) off "confuse by a false scent" is from 1891.

throw (n.)

"act of throwing," 1520s, from throw (v.). Wrestling sense is attested by 1819.

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Definitions of throw from WordNet
1
throw (v.)
propel through the air;
throw a frisbee
throw (v.)
move violently, energetically, or carelessly;
She threw herself forwards
throw (v.)
get rid of;
Synonyms: shed / cast / cast off / shake off / throw off / throw away / drop
throw (v.)
place or put with great energy;
She threw the blanket around the child
Synonyms: thrust
throw (v.)
convey or communicate; of a smile, a look, a physical gesture;
Synonyms: give
throw (v.)
cause to go on or to be engaged or set in operation;
throw the lever
Synonyms: flip / switch
throw (v.)
put or send forth;
The setting sun threw long shadows
She threw the flashlight beam into the corner
Synonyms: project / cast / contrive
throw (v.)
to put into a state or activity hastily, suddenly, or carelessly;
throw the car into reverse
Jane threw dinner together
throw (v.)
cause to be confused emotionally;
throw (v.)
utter with force; utter vehemently;
throw accusations at someone
Synonyms: hurl
throw (v.)
organize or be responsible for;
have, throw, or make a party
Synonyms: hold / have / make / give
throw (v.)
make on a potter's wheel;
she threw a beautiful teapot
throw (v.)
cause to fall off;
The horse threw its inexperienced rider
throw (v.)
throw (a die) out onto a flat surface;
throw (v.)
be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly;
This question completely threw me
2
throw (n.)
the act of throwing (propelling something with a rapid movement of the arm and wrist);
the catcher made a good throw to second base
throw (n.)
a single chance or instance;
he couldn't afford $50 a throw
throw (n.)
the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam;
Synonyms: stroke / cam stroke
throw (n.)
bedclothes consisting of a lightweight cloth covering (an afghan or bedspread) that is casually thrown over something;
throw (n.)
casting an object in order to determine an outcome randomly;
he risked his fortune on a throw of the dice
From wordnet.princeton.edu