Etymology
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test (n.)

late 14c., "small vessel used in assaying precious metals," from Old French test, from Latin testum "earthen pot," related to testa "piece of burned clay, earthen pot, shell" (see tete).

Sense of "trial or examination to determine the correctness of something" is recorded from 1590s. The connecting notion is "ascertaining the quality of a metal by melting it in a pot." Test Act was the name given to various laws in English history meant to exclude Catholics and Nonconformists from office, especially that of 1673, repealed 1828. Test drive (v.) is first recorded 1954.

test (v.)

1748, "to examine the correctness of," from test (n.), on the notion of "put to the proof." Earlier "assay gold or silver" in a test (c. 1600). Meaning "to administer a test" is from 1939; sense of "undergo a test" is from 1934. Related: Tested; testing.

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Definitions of test
1
test (v.)
put to the test, as for its quality, or give experimental use to;
Synonyms: prove / try / try out / examine / essay
test (v.)
test or examine for the presence of disease or infection;
Synonyms: screen
test (v.)
examine someone's knowledge of something;
The teacher tests us every week
Synonyms: quiz
test (v.)
show a certain characteristic when tested;
He tested positive for HIV
test (v.)
achieve a certain score or rating on a test;
She tested high on the LSAT and was admitted to all the good law schools
test (v.)
determine the presence or properties of (a substance);
test (v.)
undergo a test;
She doesn't test well
2
test (n.)
trying something to find out about it;
Synonyms: trial / trial run / tryout
test (n.)
any standardized procedure for measuring sensitivity or memory or intelligence or aptitude or personality etc;
the test was standardized on a large sample of students
Synonyms: mental test / mental testing / psychometric test
test (n.)
a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge;
when the test was stolen the professor had to make a new set of questions
Synonyms: examination / exam
test (n.)
the act of undergoing testing;
he survived the great test of battle
Synonyms: trial
test (n.)
the act of testing something;
Synonyms: trial / run
test (n.)
a hard outer covering as of some amoebas and sea urchins;
From wordnet.princeton.edu