Etymology
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Words related to test

tete (n.)
as a type of women's tall dressed hair or wig, 1756, from French tête "head," Old French teste, from Latin testa, literally "piece of earthenware, tile, potsherd; earthen pot, pitcher, jug; shell of shellfish," related to Latin testudo "tortoise" and texere "to weave" (compare Lithuanian tištas "vessel made of willow twigs"), from PIE root *teks- "to weave," also "to fabricate."

The "head" sense arose in Vulgar Latin, perhaps as a humorous use of the "jug, pot" meaning, or via Late Latin use of testa as "skull," from testa (capitis) "shell (of the head)." Compare German Kopf "head" from the root of English cup (n.).
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retest (v.)

also re-test, "test anew or again," 1863, from re- "back, again" + test (v.). Related: Retested; retesting. As a noun, "a new or repeated test," by 1887.

tester (n.1)
"one who tests, puts to trial, or assays," 1660s, agent noun from test (v.). Earlier "a crucible" for trying metals by heating them (mid-15c.).
pretest 

also pre-test, by 1949 as a verb ("to test before") and noun ("experimental test to assess the questions or methods intended for a projected test"), from pre- "before" + test.

test-tube (n.)
1809, from test (n.) + tube (n.). So called because it originally was used to test the properties of liquids. Test-tube baby is recorded from 1935.