Etymology
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temper (v.)

late Old English temprian "to moderate, bring to a proper or suitable state, to modify some excessive quality, to restrain within due limits," from Latin temperare "observe proper measure, be moderate, restrain oneself," also transitive, "mix correctly, mix in due proportion; regulate, rule, govern, manage." This is often described as from Latin tempus "time, season" (see temporal), with a sense of "proper time or season." But as the root sense of tempus seems to be "stretch," the words in the "restrain, modify" sense might be from a semantic shift from "stretching" to "measuring" (compare temple (n.1)). Meaning "to make (steel) hard and elastic" is from late 14c. Sense of "tune the pitch of a musical instrument" is recorded from c. 1300. Related: Tempered; tempering.

temper (n.)

late 14c., "due proportion of elements or qualities," from temper (v.). The sense of "characteristic state of mind, inclination, disposition" is first recorded 1590s; that of "calm state of mind, tranquility" in c. 1600; and that of "angry state of mind" (for bad temper) in 1828. Meaning "degree of hardness and resiliency in steel" is from late 15c.

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Definitions of temper
1
temper (v.)
bring to a desired consistency, texture, or hardness by a process of gradually heating and cooling;
temper glass
Synonyms: anneal / normalize
temper (v.)
harden by reheating and cooling in oil;
temper steel
Synonyms: harden
temper (v.)
adjust the pitch (of pianos);
temper (v.)
make more temperate, acceptable, or suitable by adding something else;
she tempered her criticism
Synonyms: season / mollify / moderate
temper (v.)
change by restraining or moderating;
Synonyms: chasten
2
temper (n.)
a sudden outburst of anger;
his temper sparked like damp firewood
Synonyms: pique / irritation
temper (n.)
a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling;
whether he praised or cursed me depended on his temper at the time
Synonyms: mood / humor / humour
temper (n.)
a disposition to exhibit uncontrolled anger;
his temper was well known to all his employees
Synonyms: biliousness / irritability / peevishness / pettishness / snappishness / surliness
temper (n.)
the elasticity and hardness of a metal object; its ability to absorb considerable energy before cracking;
Synonyms: toughness
From wordnet.princeton.edu