Etymology
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Words related to tangent

*tag- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to touch, handle," with figurative extensions ("border on; taste, partake of; strike, hit; affect, impress; trick, cheat; mention, speak of").

It forms all or part of: attain; contact; contaminate; entire; intact; integer; integrate; integrity; noli me tangere; tact; tactics; tactile; tangent; tangible; task; taste; tax; taxis.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin tangere "to touch," taxare "to touch, assess," tactus "touch," integer "intact, whole, complete, perfect; honest;" Greek tassein "to arrange," tetagon "having seized;" Old English þaccian "stroke, strike gently."
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tangental (adj.)
1742, from tangent (adj.) + -al (1). Related: Tangentally.
tangential (adj.)
1620s, see tangent (adj.) + -ial. Figurative sense of "divergent, erratic" is from 1787; that of "slightly connected" is from 1825. Related: Tangentially.
cotangent (n.)

in trigonometry, "the tangent of the complement of a given angle," a contraction of co. tangent, abbreviation of complement + tangent (n.).