Etymology
Advertisement

Words related to sur-

*uper 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "over."

It forms all or part of: hyper-; insuperable; over; over-; sirloin; somersault; soprano; soubrette; sovereign; sum; summit; super-; superable; superb; superior; supernal; supra-; supreme; sur-.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit upari, Avestan upairi "over, above, beyond;" Greek hyper, Latin super "above, over;" Old English ofer "over," German über, Gothic ufaro "over, across;" Gaulish ver-, Old Irish for.
Advertisement
sub- 
word-forming element meaning "under, beneath; behind; from under; resulting from further division," from Latin preposition sub "under, below, beneath, at the foot of," also "close to, up to, towards;" of time, "within, during;" figuratively "subject to, in the power of;" also "a little, somewhat" (as in sub-horridus "somewhat rough"), from PIE *(s)up- (perhaps representing *ex-upo-), a variant form of the root *upo "under," also "up from under." The Latin word also was used as a prefix and in various combinations.

In Latin assimilated to following -c-, -f-, -g-, -p-, and often -r- and -m-. In Old French the prefix appears in the full Latin form only "in learned adoptions of old Latin compounds" [OED], and in popular use it was represented by sous-, sou-; as in French souvenir from Latin subvenire, souscrire (Old French souzescrire) from subscribere, etc.

The original meaning is now obscured in many words from Latin (suggest, suspect, subject, etc.). The prefix is active in Modern English, sometimes meaning "subordinate" (as in subcontractor); "inferior" (17c., as in subhuman); "smaller" (18c.); "a part or division of" (c. 1800, as in subcontinent).
sirloin (n.)

early 15c., surloine, from French surlonge, literally "upper part of the loin," from sur "over, above" (see sur-) + longe "loin," from Old French loigne (see loin).

English spelling with sir- dates from 1620s, by folk-etymology supposed to be because the cut of beef was "knighted" by an English king for its superiority, a tale variously told of Henry VIII, James I, and Charles II. The story dates to 1655.

The word surloin or sirloin is often said to be derived from the fact that the loin was knighted as Sir Loin by Charles II, or (according to [early 19c. English dictionary writer Charles] Richardson) by James I. Chronology makes short work of this statement; the word being in use long before James I was born. It is one of those unscrupulous inventions with which English 'etymology' abounds, and which many people admire because they are 'so clever.' The number of those who literally prefer a story about a word to a more prosaic account of it, is only too large. [Walter W. Skeat, "An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language," 1882]
super- 
word-forming element meaning "above, over, beyond," from Latin super (adverb and preposition) "above, over, on the top (of), beyond, besides, in addition to," from *(s)uper-, variant form of PIE root *uper "over." In English words from Old French, it appears as sur-. The primary sense seems to have shifted over time from usually meaning "beyond" to usually meaning "very much," which can be contradictory. E.g. supersexual, which is attested from 1895 as "transcending sexuality," from 1968 as "very sexual."
surcharge (v.)
early 15c., "overcharge, charge too much expense," from Old French surcharger "to overload, overburden, overcharge" (12c.), from sur- "over" (see sur- (1)) + chargier "to load" (see charge (v.)). Meaning "make an extra charge on" is from 1885. The noun is also first attested early 15c. Related: Surcharged; surcharging.
surcingle (n.)
"girth for a horse" or other animal, late 14c., from Old French surcengle, from sur- "over" (see sur- (1)) + cengle "a girdle," from Latin cingulum "girth" (see cinch (n.)).
surcoat (n.)
"outer coat," early 14c., from Old French surcote "outer garment," from sur- "on, upon, over, above" (see sur- (1)) + cote (see coat (n.)).
surface (n.)
1610s, from French surface "an outermost boundary, outside part" (16c.), from Old French sur- "above" (see sur-) + face (see face (n.)). Patterned on Latin superficies "surface, upper side, top" (see superficial). As an adjective from 1660s.
surfeit (n.)
early 14c., "excess quantity;" late 14c., "overindulgence," from Old French sorfet "excess; arrogance" (Modern French surfait), noun use of past participle of surfaire "overdo," from sur- "over" (see sur- (1)) + faire "do," from Latin facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
surmise (v.)
c. 1400, in law, "to charge, allege," from Old French surmis, past participle of surmettre "to accuse," from sur- "upon" (see sur- (1)) + mettre "put," from Latin mittere "to send" (see mission). Meaning "to infer conjecturally" is recorded from 1700, from the noun. Related: Surmised; surmising.