Etymology
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superior (adj.)

late 14c., "higher in position," from Old French superior "higher, upper" (Modern French superieur), from Latin superiorem (nominative superior) "higher," comparative of superus "situated above, upper," from super "above, over" (from PIE root *uper "over").

Meaning "higher in rank or dignity" is attested from late 15c.; sense of "of a higher nature or character" is attested from 1530s. Original sense was preserved more strongly in French (as in les étages supérieur "the upper stories"), and in Lake Superior, a loan-translation of French Lac Supérieur, literally "upper lake" (at 600 feet above sea-level it has the highest surface elevation of the five Great Lakes and is the furthest north).

Surprise a person of the class that is supposed to keep servants cleaning his own boots, & either he will go on with the job while he talks to you, as if it were the most natural thing in the world, or else he will explain that the bootboy or scullery-maid is ill & give you to understand that he is, despite appearances, superior to boot-cleaning. If he takes the second course, you conclude that he is not superior to it; if the first, that perhaps he is. [Fowler]

superior (n.)

early 15c., from Latin superior (see superior (adj.)), used in Medieval Latin with a noun sense of "one higher, a superior."

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Definitions of superior
1
superior (adj.)
having a higher rank;
superior officer
Synonyms: ranking / higher-ranking
superior (adj.)
(often followed by `to') above being affected or influenced by;
an ignited firework proceeds superior to circumstances until its blazing vitality fades
he is superior to fear
superior (adj.)
of high or superior quality or performance;
superior wisdom derived from experience
superior math students
superior (adj.)
of or characteristic of high rank or importance;
a superior ruler
superior (adj.)
(sometimes followed by `to') not subject to or influenced by;
trust magnates who felt themselves superior to law
overcome by a superior opponent
superior (adj.)
having an orbit farther from the sun than the Earth's orbit;
Mars and Jupiter are the closest in of the superior planets
superior (adj.)
written or printed above and to one side of another character;
Synonyms: superscript
2
superior (n.)
one of greater rank or station or quality;
Synonyms: higher-up / superordinate
superior (n.)
the head of a religious community;
superior (n.)
a combatant who is able to defeat rivals;
Synonyms: victor / master
superior (n.)
a character or symbol set or printed or written above and immediately to one side of another character;
Synonyms: superscript
3
Superior (n.)
the largest freshwater lake in the world; the deepest of the Great Lakes;
Synonyms: Lake Superior
Superior (n.)
a town in northwest Wisconsin on Lake Superior across from Duluth;
From wordnet.princeton.edu