Etymology
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subtract (v.)

1530s, "withdraw, withhold, take away, deduct," a back-formation from subtraction (q.v.), or else from Latin subtractus, past participle of subtrahere "take away, draw off." Related: Subtracted; subtracting. Mathematical calculation sense is from 1550s. Earlier verb form was subtraien (early 15c. in the mathematical sense), which is directly from the Latin verb.

Here he teches þe Craft how þou schalt know, whan þou hast subtrayd, wheþer þou hast wel ydo or no. ["Craft of Numbering," c. 1425]

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Definitions of subtract

subtract (v.)
make a subtraction;
subtract this amount from my paycheck
Synonyms: deduct / take off
subtract (v.)
take off or away;
this prefix was subtracted when the word was borrowed from French
From wordnet.princeton.edu