Etymology
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subject (n.)

early 14c., "person under control or dominion of another," specifically a government or ruler, from Old French sogit, suget, subget "a subject person or thing" (12c., Modern French sujet), from noun use of Latin subiectus "lying under, below, near bordering on," figuratively "subjected, subdued," past participle of subicere, subiicere "to place under, throw under, bind under; to make subject, subordinate," from sub "under" (from PIE root *upo "under") + combining form of iacere "to throw" (from PIE root *ye- "to throw, impel"). In 14c., sugges, sogetis, subgit, sugette; form re-Latinized in English 16c.

Meaning "person or thing regarded as recipient of action, one that may be acted upon" is recorded from 1590s. Grammatical sense is recorded from 1630s, from Latin subjectum "grammatical subject," noun use of the neuter of the Latin past participle. Likewise some restricted uses in logic and philosophy are borrowed directly from Latin subjectum as "foundation or subject of a proposition," a loan-translation of Aristotle's to hypokeimenon. Meaning "subject matter of an art or science" is attested from 1540s, probably short for subject matter (late 14c.), which is from Medieval Latin subjecta materia, a loan translation of Greek hypokeimene hylē (Aristotle), literally "that which lies beneath."

subject (v.)

late 14c., "to make (a person or nation) subject to another by force," also "to render submissive or dependent," from Medieval Latin subiectare "place beneath," frequentative of Latin subicere "to make subject, subordinate" (see subject (n.)). Meaning "to lay open or expose to (some force or occurrence)" is recorded from early 15c. (implied in subjected). Related: Subjecting.

subject (adj.)

early 14c., from Old French suget, subject (Modern French sujet), from Latin subiectus (see subject (n.)).

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Definitions of subject
1
subject (n.)
the subject matter of a conversation or discussion;
he didn't want to discuss that subject
Synonyms: topic / theme
subject (n.)
something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation;
a moving picture of a train is more dramatic than a still picture of the same subject
Synonyms: content / depicted object
subject (n.)
a branch of knowledge;
teachers should be well trained in their subject
Synonyms: discipline / subject area / subject field / field / field of study / study / bailiwick
subject (n.)
some situation or event that is thought about;
he had been thinking about the subject for several years
Synonyms: topic / issue / matter
subject (n.)
(grammar) one of the two main constituents of a sentence; the grammatical constituent about which something is predicated;
subject (n.)
a person who is subjected to experimental or other observational procedures; someone who is an object of investigation;
the subjects for this investigation were selected randomly
Synonyms: case / guinea pig
subject (n.)
a person who owes allegiance to that nation;
a monarch has a duty to his subjects
Synonyms: national
subject (n.)
(logic) the first term of a proposition;
2
subject (v.)
cause to experience or suffer or make liable or vulnerable to;
He subjected me to his awful poetry
The sergeant subjected the new recruits to many drills
People in Chernobyl were subjected to radiation
subject (v.)
make accountable for;
He did not want to subject himself to the judgments of his superiors
subject (v.)
make subservient; force to submit or subdue;
Synonyms: subjugate
3
subject (adj.)
possibly accepting or permitting;
the time is fixed by the director and players and therefore subject to much variation
Synonyms: capable / open
subject (adj.)
being under the power or sovereignty of another or others;
subject peoples
Synonyms: dependent
subject (adj.)
likely to be affected by something;
the bond is subject to taxation
he is subject to fits of depression
From wordnet.princeton.edu