Etymology
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study (v.)

early 12c., "to strive toward, devote oneself to, cultivate" (translating Latin occupatur), from Old French estudiier "to study, apply oneself, show zeal for; examine" (13c., Modern French étudier), from Medieval Latin studiare, from Latin studium "study, application," originally "eagerness," from studere "to be diligent," from PIE *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)). The notion appears to be "pressing forward, thrusting toward," hence "strive after."

Martha swanc and becarcade to geforðigene þan Hælende and his þeowen þa lichamlice behefðen. Seo studdede emb þa uterlice þing. [Homily for the Feast of the Virgin Mary, c.1125]

From c. 1300 as "apply oneself to the acquisition of learning, pursue a formal course of study," also "read a book or writings intently or meditatively." From mid-14c. as "reflect, muse, think, ponder." Meaning "regard attentively" is from 1660s. Related: Studied; studying.

study (n.)

c. 1300, "application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, intensive reading and contemplation of a book, writings, etc.," from Old French estudie "care, attention, skill, thought; study, school" (Modern French étude), from Latin studium "study, application" (see study (v.)). Also from c. 1300 as "a state of deep thought or contemplation; a state of mental perplexity, doubt, anxiety; state of amazement or wonder." From mid-14c. as "careful examination, scrutiny." Sense of "room furnished with books" is from late 14c. Meaning "a subject of study" is from late 15c. Study hall is attested from 1891, originally a large common room in a college.

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Definitions of study
1
study (n.)
a detailed critical inspection;
Synonyms: survey
study (n.)
applying the mind to learning and understanding a subject (especially by reading);
no schools offer graduate study in interior design
Synonyms: work
study (n.)
a written document describing the findings of some individual or group;
this accords with the recent study by Hill and Dale
Synonyms: report / written report
study (n.)
a state of deep mental absorption;
she is in a deep study
study (n.)
a room used for reading and writing and studying;
he knocked lightly on the closed door of the study
study (n.)
a branch of knowledge;
anthropology is the study of human beings
Synonyms: discipline / subject / subject area / subject field / field / field of study / bailiwick
study (n.)
preliminary drawing for later elaboration;
Synonyms: sketch
study (n.)
attentive consideration and meditation;
Synonyms: cogitation
study (n.)
someone who memorizes quickly and easily (as the lines for a part in a play);
he is a quick study
study (n.)
a composition intended to develop one aspect of the performer's technique;
a study in spiccato bowing
2
study (v.)
consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning;
Synonyms: analyze / analyse / examine / canvass
study (v.)
be a student; follow a course of study; be enrolled at an institute of learning;
study (v.)
give careful consideration to;
Synonyms: consider
study (v.)
be a student of a certain subject;
Synonyms: learn / read / take
study (v.)
learn by reading books; "I have an exam next week; I must hit the books now";
He is studying geology in his room
Synonyms: hit the books
study (v.)
think intently and at length, as for spiritual purposes;
He is meditating in his study
Synonyms: meditate / contemplate
From wordnet.princeton.edu