Etymology
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streptococcus (n.)

bacteria genus, 1877, Modern Latin, coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos "berry" (see cocco-). So called because the bacteria usually form chains.

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Definitions of streptococcus

streptococcus (n.)
spherical Gram-positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis;
Synonyms: streptococci / strep
From wordnet.princeton.edu