Etymology
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stone (n.)

Old English stan, used of common rocks, precious gems, concretions in the body, memorial stones, from Proto-Germanic *stainaz (source also of Old Norse steinn, Danish steen, Old Saxon sten, Old Frisian sten, Dutch steen, Old High German stein, German Stein, Gothic stains), from PIE *stoi-no-, suffixed form of root *stai- "stone," also "to thicken, stiffen" (source also of Sanskrit styayate "curdles, becomes hard;" Avestan stay- "heap;" Greek stear "fat, tallow," stia, stion "pebble;" Old Church Slavonic stena, Russian stiena "wall").

Sense of "testicle" is from late Old English. The British measure of weight (usually equal to 14 pounds) is from late 14c., originally a specific stone. Stone-fruit, one with a pit, is from 1520s. Stone's throw for "a short distance" is attested from 1580s. Stone Age is from 1864. To kill two birds with one stone is first attested 1650s. To leave no stone unturned is from 1540s.

stone (v.)

c. 1200, "to pelt with stones," from stone (n.). From c. 1600 as "to fit with stones;" 1630s as "to free from stones" (of fruit, etc.). Related: Stoned; stoning.

stone (adj.)

"made of stone," Old English (which also had stænan "stonen"); see stone (n.). As an intensifying adjective recorded from 1935, first recorded in African-American vernacular, probably from earlier use in phrases like stone blind (late 14c., literally "blind as a stone"), stone deaf, stone-cold (1590s), etc. Stone cold sober dates from 1937.

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Definitions of stone
1
stone (n.)
a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter;
Synonyms: rock
stone (n.)
building material consisting of a piece of rock hewn in a definite shape for a special purpose;
he wanted a special stone to mark the site
stone (n.)
material consisting of the aggregate of minerals like those making up the Earth's crust;
stone is abundant in New England and there are many quarries
Synonyms: rock
stone (n.)
a crystalline rock that can be cut and polished for jewelry;
she had jewels made of all the rarest stones
Synonyms: gem / gemstone
stone (n.)
an avoirdupois unit used to measure the weight of a human body; equal to 14 pounds;
a heavy chap who must have weighed more than twenty stone
stone (n.)
the hard inner (usually woody) layer of the pericarp of some fruits (as peaches or plums or cherries or olives) that contains the seed;
you should remove the stones from prunes before cooking
Synonyms: pit / endocarp
stone (n.)
a lack of feeling or expression or movement;
her face was as hard as stone
he must have a heart of stone
2
stone (v.)
kill by throwing stones at;
People wanted to stone the woman who had a child out of wedlock
Synonyms: lapidate
stone (v.)
remove the pits from;
Synonyms: pit
3
stone (adj.)
of any of various dull tannish or grey colors;
4
Stone (n.)
United States jurist who was named chief justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1941 by Franklin D. Roosevelt (1872-1946);
Synonyms: Harlan Stone / Harlan F. Stone / Harlan Fisk Stone
Stone (n.)
United States filmmaker (born in 1946);
Synonyms: Oliver Stone
Stone (n.)
United States feminist and suffragist (1818-1893);
Synonyms: Lucy Stone
Stone (n.)
United States journalist who advocated liberal causes (1907-1989);
Synonyms: I. F. Stone / Isidor Feinstein Stone
Stone (n.)
United States jurist who served on the United States Supreme Court as chief justice (1872-1946);
Synonyms: Harlan Fiske Stone
Stone (n.)
United States architect (1902-1978);
Synonyms: Edward Durell Stone
From wordnet.princeton.edu