Etymology
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Words related to sting

*stegh- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to stick, prick, sting." It forms all or part of: stag; sting; stochastic.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek stokhos "fixed target, erected pillar for archers to shoot at;" Lithuanian stagaras "long, thin stalk of a plant;" Old English stagga "stag," stingan "to sting;" Old Danish stag "point;" Old Norse stong "stick, pole."
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stinger (n.)
1550s, agent noun from sting (v.). As an animal part, from 1889; earlier in this sense was sting (n.).
stinging (adj.)
c. 1200, present-participle adjective from sting (v.). Figurative use from late 14c.
sting-ray (n.)
also sting ray, 1620s, from sting + ray (n.2). First in Capt. John Smith's writings: "Stingraies, whose tailes are very dangerous ...."
stingy (adj.)
"niggardly, penurious, extremely tight-fisted," 1650s, of uncertain origin, perhaps a dialectal alteration of earlier stingy "biting, sharp, stinging" (1610s), from sting (v.). Back-formation stinge "a stingy person" is recorded from 1905. Related: Stingily; stinginess.
stung 
past tense and past participle of sting (v.).
bee-sting (n.)
1680s, from bee + sting (n.). Related: Bee-stung, which, of lips, is attested by 1845.