Etymology
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stem (n.)

Old English stemn, stefn "stem of a plant, trunk of a tree," also "either end-post of a ship," from Proto-Germanic *stamniz (source also of Old Saxon stamm, Old Norse stafn "stem of a ship;" Danish stamme, Swedish stam "trunk of a tree;" Old High German stam, German Stamm), from suffixed form of PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."

Meaning "support of a wineglass" is from 1835. Meaning "unchanging part of a word" is from 1830. Stems slang for "legs" is from 1860. The nautical sense is preserved in the phrase stem to stern "along the full length" (of a ship), attested from 1620s. Stem cell attested by 1885.

stem (v.1)

"to hold back," early 14c., from a Scandinavian source, such as Old Norse stemma "to stop, dam up; be stopped, abate," from Proto-Germanic *stamjan (source also of Swedish stämma, Old Saxon stemmian, Middle Dutch stemon, German stemmen "stop, resist, oppose"), from PIE root *stem- "to strike against something" (source also of Lithuanian stumiu, stumti "thrust, push"). Not connected to stem (n.). Related: Stemmed; stemming. Phrase to stem the tide is literally "to hold back the tide," but often is confused with stem (v.2) "make headway against."

Verbal phrase stems from (1932, American English), perhaps is from stem (v.) in the sense "to rise, mount up, have origin in" (1570s), or is influenced by or translates German stammen aus, probably from a figurative sense represented by English stem (n.) in the sense of "stock of a family, line of descent" (c. 1540; compare family tree, and German stammvater "tribal ancestor," literally "stem-father").

stem (v.2)

"make headway by sailing, head in a certain course," late 14c., literally "to push the stem through," from stem (n.) in the "ship post" sense (here the post at the prow of the ship). Related: Stemmed; stemming.

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Definitions of stem
1
stem (n.)
(linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are removed;
thematic vowels are part of the stem
Synonyms: root / root word / base / theme / radical
stem (n.)
a slender or elongated structure that supports a plant or fungus or a plant part or plant organ;
Synonyms: stalk
stem (n.)
cylinder forming a long narrow part of something;
Synonyms: shank
stem (n.)
the tube of a tobacco pipe;
stem (n.)
front part of a vessel or aircraft;
Synonyms: bow / fore / prow
stem (n.)
a turn made in skiing; the back of one ski is forced outward and the other ski is brought parallel to it;
Synonyms: stem turn
2
stem (v.)
grow out of, have roots in, originate in;
The increase in the national debt stems from the last war
stem (v.)
cause to point inward;
stem your skis
stem (v.)
stop the flow of a liquid;
stem the tide
Synonyms: stanch / staunch / halt
stem (v.)
remove the stem from;
for automatic natural language processing, the words must be stemmed
From wordnet.princeton.edu