Etymology
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state (n.1)

c. 1200, "circumstances, position in society, temporary attributes of a person or thing, conditions," from Old French estat "position, condition; status, stature, station," and directly from Latin status "a station, position, place; way of standing, posture; order, arrangement, condition," figuratively "standing, rank; public order, community organization," noun of action from past participle stem of stare "to stand" from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm." Some Middle English senses are via Old French estat (French état; see estate).

The Latin word was adopted into other modern Germanic languages (German, Dutch staat) but chiefly in the political senses only. Meaning "physical condition as regards form or structure" is attested from late 13c. Meaning "mental or emotional condition" is attested from 1530s (phrase state of mind first attested 1749); colloquial sense of "agitated or perturbed state" is from 1837.

He [the President] shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. [U.S. Constitution, Article II, Section iii]

state (v.)

1590s, "to set in a position," from state (n.1); the sense of "declare in words" is first attested 1640s, from the notion of "placing" something on the record. Related: Stated; stating.

state (n.2)

"political organization of a country, supreme civil power, government," c. 1300, from special use of state (n.1); this sense grew out of the meaning "condition of a country" with regard to government, prosperity, etc. (late 13c.), from Latin phrases such as status rei publicæ "condition (or existence) of the republic."

The sense of "a semi-independent political entity under a federal authority, one of the bodies politic which together make up a federal republic" is from 1774. The British North American colonies occasionally were called states as far back as 1630s; the States has been short for "the United States of America" since 1777; also of the Netherlands. State rights in U.S. political sense is attested from 1798; form states rights is first recorded 1858. Church and state have been contrasted from 1580s. State-socialism attested from 1850.

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Definitions of state
1
state (n.)
the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation;
his state is in the deep south
Synonyms: province
state (n.)
the way something is with respect to its main attributes;
his state of health
the current state of knowledge
in a weak financial state
state (n.)
the group of people comprising the government of a sovereign state;
the state has lowered its income tax
state (n.)
a politically organized body of people under a single government;
the state has elected a new president
Synonyms: nation / country / land / commonwealth / res publica / body politic
state (n.)
(chemistry) the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and gases (filling the container);
the solid state of water is called ice
Synonyms: state of matter
state (n.)
a state of depression or agitation;
he was in such a state you just couldn't reason with him
state (n.)
the territory occupied by a nation;
Synonyms: country / land
2
state (v.)
express in words;
state your opinion
state your name
Synonyms: say / tell
state (v.)
put before;
Synonyms: submit / put forward / posit
state (v.)
indicate through a symbol, formula, etc.;
Synonyms: express
3
State (n.)
the federal department in the United States that sets and maintains foreign policies;
Synonyms: Department of State / United States Department of State / State Department / DoS
From wordnet.princeton.edu