Etymology
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Words related to split

flint (n.)

Old English flint "flint; a type of rock noted for hardness and for giving off sparks when struck," from Proto-Germanic *flintaz (source also of Middle Dutch vlint, Old High German flins, Danish flint), from PIE *splind- "to split, cleave," from root *(s)plei- "to splice, split" (source also of Greek plinthos "brick, tile," Old Irish slind "brick"), perhaps a variant of *spel- (1) "to split, break off." Transferred senses (hardness, etc.) were in Old English.

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hair-splitting (n.)
"making over-nice distinctions," by 1739, from hair + verbal noun from split (v.). To split hairs "make over-fine distinctions" is first recorded 1650s, as to cut the hair. Hair also being 18c. slang for "female pudendum," hair-splitter was noted in 1811 as slang for "penis."
rail-splitter (n.)

"one who splits logs in rails for making a rail fence," 1853, from rail (n.1) + agent noun from split (v.). Usually with reference to or suggestion of U.S. president Abraham Lincoln, as it figured in his political biography.

split-level (adj.)
1951 as a type of building plan, from split (adj.) + level (n.). As a noun from 1954, short for split-level house, etc.
split-screen (adj.)
1949, from noun use (1946); see split (adj.) + screen (n.).
split-second (n.)
1884, originally the name of a type of stopwatch with two second hands that could be stopped independently. Meaning "a fraction of a second" is from 1912, from split (adj.) + second (n.1); adjectival meaning "occurring in a fraction of a second" is from 1946.