Etymology
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spare (v.)

Old English sparian "to refrain from harming, be indulgent to, allow to go free; use sparingly," from the source of Old English spær "sparing, frugal," from Proto-Germanic *sparaz (source also of Old Saxon sparon, Old Frisian sparia, Old Norse spara, Dutch sparen, Old High German sparon, German sparen "to spare"). Meaning "to dispense from one's own stock, give or yield up," is recorded from early 13c. Related: Spared; sparing.

spare (adj.)

"kept in reserve, not used, provided or held for extra need," late 14c., from or from the same root as spare (v.). Old English had spær "sparing, frugal." Also compare Old Norse sparr "(to be) spared." In reference to time, from mid-15c.; sense of "lacking in substance; lean, gaunt; flimsy, thin; poor," is recorded from 1540s. Spare part is attested from 1888. Spare tire is from 1894 of bicycles; 1903 of automobiles; 1961 of waistlines.

spare (n.)

"extra thing or part," 1640s, from spare (adj.). The Middle English noun sense was "a sparing, mercy, leniency" (early 14c.). Bowling game sense of "an advantage gained by a knocking down of all pins in two bowls" is attested from 1843, American English.

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Definitions of spare
1
spare (adj.)
lacking in magnitude or quantity;
a spare diet
Synonyms: bare / scanty
spare (adj.)
thin and fit;
the spare figure of a marathon runner
Synonyms: trim
spare (adj.)
more than is needed, desired, or required;
sleeping in the spare room
spare (adj.)
not taken up by scheduled activities;
spare time on my hands
Synonyms: free
spare (adj.)
kept in reserve especially for emergency use;
a spare tire
spare parts
spare (adj.)
lacking embellishment or ornamentation;
Synonyms: plain / bare / unembellished / unornamented
2
spare (v.)
refrain from harming;
Synonyms: save
spare (v.)
save or relieve from an experience or action;
I'll spare you from having to apologize formally
spare (v.)
give up what is not strictly needed;
he asked if they could spare one of their horses to speed his journey
Synonyms: give up / part with / dispense with
spare (v.)
use frugally or carefully;
3
spare (n.)
an extra component of a machine or other apparatus;
Synonyms: spare part
spare (n.)
an extra car wheel and tire for a four-wheel vehicle;
Synonyms: fifth wheel
spare (n.)
a score in tenpins; knocking down all ten after rolling two balls;
From wordnet.princeton.edu