Etymology
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sentence (n.)

c. 1200, "doctrine, authoritative teaching; an authoritative pronouncement," from Old French sentence "judgment, decision; meaning; aphorism, maxim; statement of authority" (12c.) and directly from Latin sententia "thought, way of thinking, opinion; judgment, decision," also "a thought expressed; aphorism, saying," from sentientem, present participle of sentire "be of opinion, feel, perceive" (see sense (n.)). Loss of first -i- in Latin by dissimilation.

From early 14c. as "judgment rendered by God, or by one in authority; a verdict, decision in court;" from late 14c. as "understanding, wisdom; edifying subject matter." From late 14c. as "subject matter or content of a letter, book, speech, etc.," also in reference to a passage in a written work. Sense of "grammatically complete statement" is attested from mid-15c. "Meaning," then "meaning expressed in words." Related: Sentential.

sentence (v.)

"to pass judgment," c. 1400, from sentence (n.). Related: Sentenced; sentencing.

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Definitions of sentence
1
sentence (n.)
a string of words satisfying the grammatical rules of a language;
he always spoke in grammatical sentences
sentence (n.)
(criminal law) a final judgment of guilty in a criminal case and the punishment that is imposed;
Synonyms: conviction / judgment of conviction / condemnation
sentence (n.)
the period of time a prisoner is imprisoned;
his sentence was 5 to 10 years
Synonyms: prison term / time
2
sentence (v.)
pronounce a sentence on (somebody) in a court of law;
Synonyms: condemn / doom
From wordnet.princeton.edu