sense (n.)

c. 1400, "faculty of perception," also "meaning, import, interpretation" (especially of Holy Scripture), from Old French sens "one of the five senses; meaning; wit, understanding" (12c.) and directly from Latin sensus "perception, feeling, undertaking, meaning," from sentire "perceive, feel, know," probably a figurative use of a literally meaning "to find one's way," or "to go mentally," from PIE root *sent- "to go" (source also of Old High German sinnan "to go, travel, strive after, have in mind, perceive," German Sinn "sense, mind," Old English sið "way, journey," Old Irish set, Welsh hynt "way"). Application to any one of the external or outward senses (touch, sight, hearing, etc.) in English first recorded 1520s.

A certain negro tribe has a special word for "see;" but only one general word for "hear," "touch," "smell," and "taste." It matters little through which sense I realize that in the dark I have blundered into a pig-sty. In French "sentir" means to smell, to touch, and to feel, all together. [Erich M. von Hornbostel, "Die Einheit der Sinne" ("The Unity of the Senses"), 1927]

Meaning "that which is wise" is from c. 1600. Meaning "capacity for perception and appreciation" is from c. 1600 (as in sense of humor, attested by 1783, sense of shame, 1640s).

sense (v.)

"to perceive by the senses," 1590s, from sense (n.). Meaning "be conscious inwardly of (one's state or condition) is from 1680s. Meaning "perceive (a fact or situation) not by direct perception" is from 1872. Related: Sensed; sensing.

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Definitions of sense
sense (n.)
a general conscious awareness;
a sense of danger
a sense of security
a sense of self
a sense of happiness
sense (n.)
the meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or expression or situation can be interpreted;
in the best sense charity is really a duty
the dictionary gave several senses for the word
Synonyms: signified
sense (n.)
the faculty through which the external world is apprehended;
in the dark he had to depend on touch and on his senses of smell and hearing
Synonyms: sensation / sentience / sentiency / sensory faculty
sense (n.)
sound practical judgment;
he hasn't got the sense God gave little green apples
fortunately she had the good sense to run away
Common sense is not so common
Synonyms: common sense / good sense / gumption / horse sense / mother wit
sense (n.)
a natural appreciation or ability;
a keen musical sense
a good sense of timing
sense (v.)
perceive by a physical sensation, e.g., coming from the skin or muscles;
Synonyms: feel
sense (v.)
detect some circumstance or entity automatically;
This robot can sense the presence of people in the room
particle detectors sense ionization
sense (v.)
become aware of not through the senses but instinctively;
I sense his hostility
Synonyms: smell / smell out
sense (v.)
I sensed the real meaning of his letter