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self (pron.)

Old English self, seolf, sylf "one's own person, -self; own, same," from Proto-Germanic *selbaz (source also of Old Norse sjalfr, Old Frisian self, Dutch zelf, Old High German selb, German selb, selbst, Gothic silba), Proto-Germanic *selbaz "self," from PIE *sel-bho-, suffixed form of root *s(w)e-, pronoun of the third person and reflexive (referring back to the subject of a sentence), also used in forms denoting the speaker's social group, "(we our-)selves" (see idiom).

Trying to define yourself is like trying to bite your own teeth. [Alan Watts]

Its use in compounds to form reflexive pronouns grew out of independent use in Old English. As a noun from early 14c.

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Definitions of self from WordNet
1
self (n.)
your consciousness of your own identity;
Synonyms: ego
self (n.)
a person considered as a unique individual;
one's own self
2
self (adj.)
(used as a combining form) relating to--of or by or to or from or for--the self;
self-knowledge
self-proclaimed
self-induced
From wordnet.princeton.edu