Etymology
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say (v.)

Old English secgan "to utter, inform, speak, tell, relate," from Proto-Germanic *sagjanan (source also of Old Saxon seggian, Old Norse segja, Danish sige, Old Frisian sedsa, Middle Dutch segghen, Dutch zeggen, Old High German sagen, German sagen "to say"), from PIE *sokwyo-, from root *sekw- (3) "to say, utter" (source also of Hittite shakiya- "to declare," Lithuanian sakyti "to say," Old Church Slavonic sociti "to vindicate, show," Old Irish insce "speech," Old Latin inseque "to tell say").

Past tense said developed from Old English segde. Not attested in use with inanimate objects (clocks, signs, etc.) as subjects before 1930. You said it "you're right" first recorded 1919; you can say that again as a phrase expressing agreement is recorded from 1942, American English. You don't say (so) as an expression of astonishment (often ironic) is first recorded 1779, American English.

say (n.)

"what someone says," 1570s, from say (v.). Meaning "right or authority to influence a decision" is from 1610s. Extended form say-so is first recorded 1630s. Compare Old English secge "speech."

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Definitions of say
1
say (v.)
express in words;
He said that he wanted to marry her
Synonyms: state / tell
say (v.)
report or maintain;
He said it was too late to intervene in the war
The registrar says that I owe the school money
Synonyms: allege / aver
say (v.)
express a supposition;
Let's say you had a lot of money--what would you do?
Let us say that he did not tell the truth
Synonyms: suppose
say (v.)
have or contain a certain wording or form;
What does the law say?
Synonyms: read
say (v.)
give instructions to or direct somebody to do something with authority;
I said to him to go home
Synonyms: order / tell / enjoin
say (v.)
speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way;
I cannot say `zip wire'
Synonyms: pronounce / articulate / enounce / sound out / enunciate
say (v.)
communicate or express nonverbally;
Did his face say anything about how he felt?
What does this painting say?
say (v.)
utter aloud;
She said `Hello' to everyone in the office
say (v.)
state as one's opinion or judgement; declare;
I say let's forget this whole business
say (v.)
recite or repeat a fixed text;
She said her `Hail Mary'
say (v.)
indicate;
The clock says noon
2
say (n.)
the chance to speak;
let him have his say
From wordnet.princeton.edu