run (v.)

the modern verb is a merger of two related Old English words, in both of which the first letters sometimes switched places. The first is intransitive rinnan, irnan "to run, flow, run together" (past tense ran, past participle runnen), cognate with Middle Dutch runnen, Old Saxon, Old High German, Gothic rinnan, German rinnen "to flow, run."

The second is Old English transitive weak verb ærnan, earnan "ride, run to, reach, gain by running" (probably a metathesis of *rennan), from Proto-Germanic *rannjanan, causative of the root *ren- "to run." This is cognate with Old Saxon renian, Old High German rennen, German rennen, Gothic rannjan.

Both are from PIE *ri-ne-a-, nasalized form of root *rei- "to run, flow"

Of streams, etc., from c. 1200; of machinery, from 1560s. Meaning "be in charge of" is first attested 1861, originally American English. Meaning "seek office in an election" is from 1826, American English. Phrase run for it "take flight" is attested from 1640s. Many figurative uses are from horseracing or hunting (such as to run (something) into the ground, 1836, American English).

To run across "meet" is attested from 1855, American English. To run short "exhaust one's supply" is from 1752; to run out of in the same sense is from 1713. To run around with "consort with" is from 1887. Run away "flee in the face of danger" is from late 14c. To run late is from 1954.

run (n.)

"a spell of running," mid-15c. (earlier ren, late 14c.), from run (v.). The Old English noun ryne meant "a flowing, a course, a watercourse." Modern sense of "small stream" first recorded 1580s, mostly Northern English dialect and American English.

Meaning "continuous stretch" (of something) is from 1670s. Meaning "series or rush of demands on a bank, etc." is first recorded 1690s. Meaning "the privilege of going through or over" is from 1755. Baseball sense is from 1856. Meaning "single trip by a railroad train" is from 1857. Military aircraft sense is from 1916. Meaning "total number of copies printed" is from 1909. Meaning "tear in a knitted garment" is from 1922. Phrase a run for one's money is from 1872 in a figurative sense, originally from horse racing, implying competition (1841).

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Definitions of run from WordNet
run (v.)
move fast by using one's feet, with one foot off the ground at any given time;
Don't run--you'll be out of breath
The children ran to the store
run (v.)
flee; take to one's heels; cut and run;
If you see this man, run!
Synonyms: scat / scarper / turn tail / lam / run away / hightail it / bunk / head for the hills / take to the woods / escape / fly the coop / break away
run (v.)
stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point;
Service runs all the way to Cranbury
Synonyms: go / pass / lead / extend
run (v.)
direct or control; projects, businesses, etc.;
She is running a relief operation in the Sudan
Synonyms: operate
run (v.)
have a particular form;
the story or argument runs as follows
Synonyms: go
run (v.)
move along, of liquids;
Synonyms: flow / feed / course
run (v.)
perform as expected when applied;
Does this old car still run well?
Synonyms: function / work / operate / go
run (v.)
change or be different within limits;
Interest rates run from 5 to 10 percent
Synonyms: range
run (v.)
run, stand, or compete for an office or a position;
Who's running for treasurer this year?
Synonyms: campaign
run (v.)
cause to emit recorded audio or video;
They ran the tapes over and over again
Synonyms: play
run (v.)
move about freely and without restraint, or act as if running around in an uncontrolled way;
let the dogs run free
who are these people running around in the building?
She runs around telling everyone of her troubles
run (v.)
have a tendency or disposition to do or be something; be inclined;
These dresses run small
Synonyms: tend / be given / lean / incline
run (v.)
be operating, running or functioning;
The car is still running--turn it off!
run (v.)
change from one state to another;
run rogue
run amok
run riot
run (v.)
cause to perform;
run a subject
run a process
run (v.)
be affected by; be subjected to;
run a temperature
run a risk
run (v.)
continue to exist;
Synonyms: prevail / persist / die hard / endure
run (v.)
occur persistently;
Musical talent runs in the family
run (v.)
carry out a process or program, as on a computer or a machine;
run a new program on the Mac
Synonyms: execute
run (v.)
include as the content; broadcast or publicize;
We ran the ad three times
Synonyms: carry
run (v.)
carry out;
run (v.)
pass over, across, or through;
He ran his eyes over her body
She ran her fingers along the carved figurine
Synonyms: guide / draw / pass
run (v.)
cause something to pass or lead somewhere;
Synonyms: lead
run (v.)
make without a miss;
run (v.)
deal in illegally, such as arms or liquor;
Synonyms: black market
run (v.)
cause an animal to move fast;
run the dogs
run (v.)
be diffused;
Synonyms: bleed
run (v.)
sail before the wind;
run (v.)
cover by running; run a certain distance;
She ran 10 miles that day
run (v.)
extend or continue for a certain period of time;
The film runs 5 hours
Synonyms: run for
run (v.)
set animals loose to graze;
run (v.)
keep company;
the heifers run with the bulls to produce offspring
Synonyms: consort
run (v.)
run with the ball; in such sports as football;
run (v.)
travel rapidly, by any (unspecified) means;
She always runs to Italy, because she has a lover there
run (v.)
travel a route regularly;
Synonyms: ply
run (v.)
pursue for food or sport (as of wild animals);
The dogs are running deer
Synonyms: hunt / hunt down / track down
run (v.)
compete in a race;
he is running the Marathon this year
Synonyms: race
run (v.)
progress by being changed;
run through your presentation before the meeting
Synonyms: move / go
run (v.)
reduce or cause to be reduced from a solid to a liquid state, usually by heating;
Synonyms: melt / melt down
run (v.)
come unraveled or undone as if by snagging;
Her nylons were running
Synonyms: ladder
run (v.)
become undone;
Synonyms: unravel
run (n.)
a score in baseball made by a runner touching all four bases safely;
the Yankees scored 3 runs in the bottom of the 9th
Synonyms: tally
run (n.)
the act of testing something;
Synonyms: test / trial
run (n.)
a race run on foot;
she broke the record for the half-mile run
Synonyms: footrace / foot race
run (n.)
an unbroken series of events;
Nicklaus had a run of birdies
Synonyms: streak
run (n.)
(American football) a play in which a player attempts to carry the ball through or past the opposing team;
the coach put great emphasis on running
the defensive line braced to stop the run
Synonyms: running / running play / running game
run (n.)
a regular trip;
the ship made its run in record time
run (n.)
the act of running; traveling on foot at a fast pace;
his daily run keeps him fit
he broke into a run
Synonyms: running
run (n.)
the continuous period of time during which something (a machine or a factory) operates or continues in operation;
the assembly line was on a 12-hour run
run (n.)
unrestricted freedom to use;
he has the run of the house
run (n.)
the production achieved during a continuous period of operation (of a machine or factory etc.);
a daily run of 100,000 gallons of paint
run (n.)
a small stream;
Synonyms: rivulet / rill / runnel / streamlet
run (n.)
a race between candidates for elective office;
he is raising money for a Senate run
Synonyms: political campaign / campaign
run (n.)
a row of unravelled stitches;
she got a run in her stocking
Synonyms: ladder / ravel
run (n.)
the pouring forth of a fluid;
Synonyms: discharge / outpouring
run (n.)
an unbroken chronological sequence;
the play had a long run on Broadway
the team enjoyed a brief run of victories
run (n.)
a short trip;
take a run into town