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rod (n.)

Middle English rod, rodde, "a stick of wood," especially a straight cutting from a woody plant, stripped of twigs, and having a particular purpose" (walking stick, wand of office, instrument of punishment), from Old English rodd "a rod, pole," which is probably cognate with Old Norse rudda "club," from Proto-Germanic *rudd- "stick, club," from PIE *reudh- "to clear land." Other sources formerly consider it to correspond to the continental words under rood.

As a long, tapering elastic pole for fishing, from mid-15c. Figurative sense of "offshoot" (mid-15c.) led to Biblical meaning "scion, tribe." As an instrument of punishment, attested from mid-12c.; also used figuratively for "any sort of correction or punishment" (14c.). In mechanics, "any bar slender in proportion to its length" (1728).

As a unit of linear measure (5½ yards or 16½ feet, also called perch or pole) attested from late 14c., from the pole used to mark it off. As a measure of land area, "a square perch," from late 14c., the usual measure in brickwork. Meaning "light-sensitive cell in a retina" is by 1837, so-called for their shape. Slang meaning "penis" is recorded from 1902; that of "handgun, pistol, revolver" is by 1903.

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Definitions of rod

rod (n.)
a long thin implement made of metal or wood;
rod (n.)
any rod-shaped bacterium;
rod (n.)
a linear measure of 16.5 feet;
Synonyms: perch / pole
rod (n.)
a square rod of land;
Synonyms: perch / pole
rod (n.)
a visual receptor cell that is sensitive to dim light;
Synonyms: rod cell / retinal rod
rod (n.)
a gangster's pistol;
Synonyms: gat
From wordnet.princeton.edu