mid-15c., review, revewe, reveue, "a formal inspection of military forces" by a higher official or superior in rank, to judge the effectiveness of their training, from Old French reveue "a reviewing, review" (Modern French revue), noun use of fem. past participle of reveeir "to see again, go to see again," from Latin revidere, from re- "again" (see re-) + videre "to see" (from PIE root *weid- "to see").
The sense of "act or process of going over again," especially with a view to correction, is from 1560s. The meaning "general survey of a subject" is from c. 1600; that of "a view of the past, a retrospective survey" is from 1670s. The meaning "general examination or criticism of a recent literary, dramatic, or artistic work" is attested from 1640s. Hence review used as a name for a periodical which publishes mainly articles on current affairs or critical examinations of literary works (1705).
1570s, "re-view, examine or view again," from re- "again" + view (v.). The meaning "look back on, recall by the aid of memory" is from 1751; that of "consider or discuss critically to bring out the excellences and defects" especially in the form of a written essay is from 1781. Related: Reviewed; reviewing.