Etymology
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residual (adj.)

"formed by subtraction of one quantity from another, of or like a residuum," 1560s, from residue + -al (1), or from French résiduel, from Latin residuum "that which is left behind." By c. 1600 as "remaining, left over."

residual (n.)

1550s, in mathematics, "a residual quantity," from residual (adj.) or from residue + -al (2). Residuals "royalties for repeated performance or broadcast" is attested by 1960.

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Definitions of residual
1
residual (n.)
something left after other parts have been taken away;
Synonyms: remainder / balance / residue / residuum / rest
residual (n.)
(often plural) a payment that is made to a performer or writer or director of a television show or commercial that is paid for every repeat showing;
he could retire on his residuals
2
residual (adj.)
relating to or indicating a remainder;
residual quantity
Synonyms: residuary
From wordnet.princeton.edu