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resident (n.)

mid-15c., "an inhabitant, one who dwells in a place permanently or for a considerable time," from resident (adj.). Meaning "medical graduate doing supervised specialized practice in a hospital as training" is attested by 1892, American English.

resident (adj.)

late 14c., "dwelling, residing, having an abode in a place for a continuance of time," from Old French resident and directly from Latin residentem (nominative residens), present participle of residere "to sit down, settle" (see reside). From early 15c. as "stay in a place in discharge of some duty," originally ecclesiastical.

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Definitions of resident
1
resident (n.)
someone who lives at a particular place for a prolonged period or who was born there;
Synonyms: occupant / occupier
resident (n.)
a physician (especially an intern) who lives in a hospital and cares for hospitalized patients under the supervision of the medical staff of the hospital;
the resident was receiving special clinical training at the hospital
Synonyms: house physician / resident physician
2
resident (adj.)
living in a particular place;
resident aliens
resident (adj.)
used of animals that do not migrate;
Synonyms: nonmigratory
From wordnet.princeton.edu