"severe reproof (especially one given by a magistrate or authority) for a fault," 1630s, from French réprimande (16c.), earlier reprimende "reproof," from Latin reprimenda "that is to be repressed" (as in reprimenda culpa "fault to be checked," reprimenda res "thing that ought to be repressed").
The word is thus a noun use of the fem. singular of reprimendus, gerundive of reprimere "hold back, curb," figuratively "check, confine, restrain, refrain," from re- "back" (see re-) + premere "to press, hold fast, cover, crowd, compress" (from PIE root *per- (4) "to strike"). The spelling has been influenced in French by mander "to summon."
"reprove severely, chide for a fault," 1680s, from reprimand (n.) or else from French réprimander (17c.), from réprimande. Related: Reprimanded; reprimanding.