late 14c., renouncen, "give up (something, especially to another), resign, surrender," from Old French renoncier "give up, cede" (12c., Modern French renoncer) and directly from Latin renuntiare "bring back word; proclaim; protest against, renounce," from re- "against" (see re-) + nuntiare "to report, announce," from nuntius "messenger" (from PIE root *neu- "to shout").
The sense of "abandon, discontinue" (a habit, practice, etc.) is from late 15c.. That of "disclaim relationship with or allegiance to" a person is by c. 1500. That of "to abandon or give up" a belief, opinion, etc. by open recantation, declare against" is from 1530s. Related: Renounced; renouncing; renouncement.
Renounce, to declare strongly, with more or less of formality, that we give up some opinion, profession, or pursuit forever. Thus, a pretender to a throne may renounce his claim. Recant, to make publicly known that we give up a principle or belief formerly maintained, from conviction of its erroneousness ; the word therefore implies the adoption of the opposite belief. [Century Dictionary]