Etymology
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remainder (n.)

late 14c., remaindre, in law, a right of ownership designed to devolve upon a second party, from Anglo-French remeinder, Old French remaindre, noun use of infinitive, a variant of Old French remanoir "to stay, dwell, remain; be left; hold out," from Latin remanere "to remain, to stay behind; be left behind; endure, abide, last" (source also of Old Spanish remaner, Italian rimanere).

This is from re- "back" (see re-) + manere "to stay, remain" (from PIE root *men- (3) "to remain"). For noun use of infinitives in Anglo-French legalese, see waiver (n.).

The general meaning "that which remains, anything left over after separation, removal, etc." is by 1550s. In mathematics from 1570s. Specifically in publication, "what remains of an edition the sale of which has practically ceased and is sold at a reduced price" (1757).

remainder (v.)

 early 15c., in law, of rights of ownership, "to devolve upon a second party," from remainder (n.). The meaning "dispose of (the remaining unsold editions of a book) at a reduced price" is by 1902, from the noun in the publication sense. Related: Remaindered.

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Definitions of remainder
1
remainder (n.)
something left after other parts have been taken away;
there was no remainder
Synonyms: balance / residual / residue / residuum / rest
remainder (n.)
the part of the dividend that is left over when the dividend is not evenly divisible by the divisor;
remainder (n.)
the number that remains after subtraction; the number that when added to the subtrahend gives the minuend;
Synonyms: difference
remainder (n.)
a piece of cloth that is left over after the rest has been used or sold;
Synonyms: end / remnant / oddment
2
remainder (v.)
sell cheaply as remainders;
The publisher remaindered the books
From wordnet.princeton.edu

Dictionary entries near remainder

reluctant

rely

REM

remade

remain

remainder

remake

remand

remanence

remanent

remark