Etymology
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Words related to redundant

re- 

word-forming element meaning "back, back from, back to the original place;" also "again, anew, once more," also conveying the notion of "undoing" or "backward," etc. (see sense evolution below), c. 1200, from Old French re- and directly from Latin re- an inseparable prefix meaning "again; back; anew, against."

Watkins (2000) describes this as a "Latin combining form conceivably from Indo-European *wret-, metathetical variant of *wert- "to turn." De Vaan says the "only acceptable etymology" for it is a 2004 explanation which reconstructs a root in PIE *ure "back."

In earliest Latin the prefix became red- before vowels and h-, a form preserved in redact, redeem, redolent, redundant, redintegrate, and, in disguise, render (v.). In some English words from French and Italian re- appears as ra- and the  following consonant is often doubled (see rally (v.1)).

The many meanings in the notion of "back" give re- its broad sense-range: "a turning back; opposition; restoration to a former state; "transition to an opposite state." From the extended senses in "again," re- becomes "repetition of an action," and in this sense it is extremely common as a formative element in English, applicable to any verb. OED writes that it is "impossible to attempt a complete record of all the forms resulting from its use," and adds that "The number of these is practically infinite ...."   

Often merely intensive, and in many of the older borrowings from French and Latin the precise sense of re- is forgotten, lost in secondary senses, or weakened beyond recognition, so that it has no apparent semantic content (receive, recommend, recover, reduce, recreate, refer, religion, remain, request, require). There seem to have been more such words in Middle English than after, e.g. recomfort (v.) "to comfort, console; encourage;" recourse (n.) "a process, way, course." Recover in Middle English also could mean "obtain, win" (happiness, a kingdom, etc.) with no notion of getting something back, also "gain the upper hand, overcome; arrive at;" also consider the legal sense of recovery as "obtain (property) by judgment or legal proceedings." 

And, due to sound changes and accent shifts, re- sometimes entirely loses its identity as a prefix (rebel, relic, remnant, restive, rest (n.2) "remainder," rally (v.1) "bring together"). In a few words it is reduced to r-, as in ransom (a doublet of redemption), rampart, etc.

It was used from Middle English in forming words from Germanic as well as Latin elements (rebuild, refill, reset, rewrite), and was used so even in Old French (regret, regard, reward, etc.).

Prefixed to a word beginning with e, re- is separated by a hyphen, as re-establish, re-estate, re-edify, etc. ; or else the second e has a dieresis over it: as, reëstablish, reëmbark, etc. The hyphen is also sometimes used to bring out emphatically the sense of repetition or iteration : as, sung and re-sung. The dieresis is not used over other vowels than e when re is prefixed : thus, reinforce, reunite, reabolish. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
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*wed- (1)
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "water; wet."

It forms all or part of: abound; anhydrous; carbohydrate; clepsydra; dropsy; hydra; hydrangea; hydrant; hydrargyrum; hydrate; hydraulic; hydro-; hydrogen; hydrophobia; hydrous; Hydrus; inundate; inundation; kirsch-wasser; nutria; otter; redound; redundant; surround; undine; undulant; undulate; undulation; vodka; wash; water (n.1); wet; whiskey; winter.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Hittite watar, Sanskrit udrah, Greek hydor, Old Church Slavonic and Russian voda, Lithuanian vanduo, Old Prussian wundan, Gaelic uisge "water;" Latin unda "wave;" Old English wæter, Old High German wazzar, Gothic wato "water."
redound (v.)

late 14c., redounden, "to overflow, flow abundantly; abound, multiply, increase" (senses now obsolete), also "to flow or go back" (to a place or person), "be sent, rolled, or driven back," from Old French redonder "overflow, abound, be in profusion" (12c.), from Latin redundare "to overflow" (see redundant). Hence "to contribute, have effect" (to the credit, honor, etc.), early 15c. Related: Redounded; redounding.

dander (n.2)

"temper, anger, passion," 1831, American English, of unknown origin; perhaps a figurative use somehow of dander (n.1), or of West Indian dander, dunder "fermentation of sugar" (in English from 1796), from Spanish redundar "to overflow," from Latin redundare (see redundant).

redemption (n.)

mid-14c., redemcioun, "deliverance from sin," from Old French redemcion (12c.) and directly from Latin redemptionem (nominative redemptio) "a buying back or off, a releasing, a ransoming" (also "bribery"), noun of action from past-participle stem of redimere "to redeem, buy back," from red- "back" (see re-) + emere "to take, buy, gain, procure" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute").

The -d- is from the Old Latin habit of using red- as the form of re- before vowels, as also preserved in redact, redolent, redundant. The general sense of "release, repurchase, deliverance" is from late 15c. Commercial sense is from late 15c. Year of Redemption as "Anno Domini" is from 1510s. In the Mercian hymns, Latin redemptionem is glossed by Old English alesnisse.

redundance (n.)

1610s, "superfluity, overabundance," from Latin redundantia "an overflowing, superfluity, excess," from redundare "overflow, pour over; be in excess" (see redundant). Meaning "that which is redundant" emerged by 1788.

redundancy (n.)

c. 1600, "condition of superfluity, overabundance;" see redundant + -ancy. The meaning "that which is redundant" is by 1630s; the sense in employment ("superfluous jobs, jobs in excess of what are necessary") is by 1931, chiefly British.