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recusant (adj.)

"obstinate in refusal," 1610s, from Latin recusantem (nominative recusans) "refusing to obey," present participle of recusare "make an objection against; decline, refuse, reject; be reluctant to" (see recuse).

Earlier as a noun in English history, specifically of those who refused to attend divine service in Anglican churches (1550s), a punishable offense, enforcement of which fell heavily on Roman Catholics. The original use of the adjective also is in reference to this.

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Definitions of recusant from WordNet
1
recusant (adj.)
(of Catholics) refusing to attend services of the Church of England;
Synonyms: dissentient
recusant (adj.)
refusing to submit to authority; "the recusant electors...cooperated in electing a new Senate"- Mary W.Williams;
2
recusant (n.)
someone who refuses to conform to established standards of conduct;
Synonyms: nonconformist
From wordnet.princeton.edu