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recusal (n.)

"an objection to a judge as prejudiced" (usually reflective), 1911; from recuse + -al (2). Earlier were recusancy "obstinate refusal or opposition" (1560s), recusance (1590s); recusation (c. 1400), as a legal term for an interposition of an objection or challenge for cause to a judge, arbitration, etc.

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Definitions of recusal from WordNet

recusal (n.)
(law) the disqualification of a judge or jury by reason of prejudice or conflict of interest; a judge can be recused by objections of either party or judges can disqualify themselves;
Synonyms: recusation
From wordnet.princeton.edu