late 14c., receit, "act of receiving;" also "statement of ingredients in and formula for making a potion or medicine" (compare recipe); from Anglo-French or Old North French receite "receipt, recipe, prescription" (c. 1300), altered (by influence of receit "he receives," from Vulgar Latin *recipit) from Old French recete. This is from Medieval Latin Latin recepta "thing or money received," in classical Latin "received," fem. past participle of recipere "to hold, contain" (see receive).
The classical -p- began to be restored in the English word after c. 1500, but the pronunciation did not follow. Conceit, deceit, and receipt all are from Latin capere; the -p- sometimes was restored in all three of them, but it has stuck only in the last. The meaning "written acknowledgment for having received something specified" is from c. 1600.