Words related to re-
late 14c., redacten, "combine in a unity;" c. 1400, "compile, arrange" (laws, codes, etc.); early 15c., "bring into organized form;" from Latin redactus, past participle of redigere "to drive back, force back; bring back; collect, call in; bring down, reduce to a certain state," from red- "back, again" (see re-) + agere "to set in motion, drive, do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").
The specific meaning "arrange, edit, bring into presentable literary form" is from 1851. Also in Middle English "to reduce" (to ashes, powder, etc.), early 15c. Related: Redacted; redacting; redactor; rédacteur.
early 15c., redemen, "buy back, ransom, recover by purchase," also in a theological sense, "deliver from sin and spiritual death," from Old French redimer "buy back" and directly from Latin redimere "to redeem, buy back," from red- "back" (see re-) + emere "to take, buy, gain, procure" (from PIE root *em- "to take, distribute").
In Middle English, Latin redimere sometimes was translated as againbuy. The general sense of "rescue, deliver, save" is from late 15c. The meaning "make amends for" is from 1520s. Sense of "make good, perform, fulfill" (a promise, obligation, etc.) is from 1840. The commercial sense of "receive back by paying the obligation" is by 1889. The sense of "save (time) from being lost" (Tindale, Shakespeare, Young, Cowper, Eliot) is after Ephesians v.16, Colossians iv.5. Related: Redeemed; redeeming; redempt (obsolete).
c. 1400, of flowers, food, etc., "having or diffusing a fresh and sweet scent," from Old French redolent "emitting an odor" and directly from Latin redolentem (nominative redolens), present participle of redolere "emit a scent, diffuse odor," from red-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see re-), + olere "give off a smell" (see odor). The meaning "odorous or smelling" of (or with) something is by 1700; figurative use of this is by 1828. Related: Redolently.
"superfluous, exceeding what is natural or necessary," c. 1600, from Latin redundantem (nominative redundans), present participle of redundare, literally "overflow, pour over; be over-full;" figuratively "be in excess," from re- "again" (see re-) + undare "rise in waves," from unda "a wave" (from PIE *unda-, nasalized form of root *wed- (1) "water; wet").
Also sometimes in 17c. in a more positive sense, "abounding to excess or fullness, exuberant, plentiful," e.g. in "Paradise Lost," though what he meant by it here is anyone's guess:
With burnished neck of verdant gold, erect
Amidst his circling spires that on the grass
Of persons, in employment situations by 1928, chiefly British. Related: Redundantly. As a verb, redund has been tried at least once (1904); the etymological corresponding verb is the Frenchified redound.
late 14c., rendren, rendre, "repeat, say again, recite; translate," from Old French rendre "give back, present, yield" (10c.) and Medieval Latin rendere, from Vulgar Latin *rendere, a variant of Latin reddere "give back, return, restore," from red- "back" (see re-) + combining form of dare "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give").
The alteration in Vulgar Latin was perhaps simply nasalization or perhaps on analogy of its antonym, prendre "to take" (itself a contraction of prehendere). The irregular retention of -er in a French verb in English is perhaps to avoid confusion with native rend (v.) or by influence of a Middle English legalese noun render "a payment of rent," which is in part from French noun use of the infinitive.
The sense of "reduce," in reference to fats, "clarify by boiling or steaming" also is from late 14c. The meaning "hand over, yield up, deliver" is recorded from c. 1400; sense of "to return" (thanks, a verdict, etc.) is attested from late 15c., as is that of "make or cause to be) in a certain state; the meaning "represent, depict" is attested from 1590s. Related: Rendered; renderer; rendering. Also compare rendition, rent (n.1).
In Old French (and Italian), re- often appeared as ra- by confusion with the true ra- (from Latin re- + ad-), and the following consonant often was doubled; compare rabbet (a doublet of rebate), rappel (a doublet of repeal). But as ra- was not recognized in English as a prefix, words with ra- in Old French usually returned to re- in English; Rally and rabbet never were because the accent had receded. In later borrowings (rappel, rapprochement, etc.) the words tend to keep their French forms.
Intransitive meaning "pull together hastily, recover order, revive, rouse" is from 1660s. Related: Rallied; rallying. Rallying-point "place at or about which persons come together for action" is by 1798. Rally round the flag (1862) is a line from popular American Civil War song "Battle Cry of Freedom."
c. 1300, receiven, "take into one's possession, accept possession of," also in reference to the sacrament, from Old North French receivre (Old French recoivre) "seize, take hold of, pick up; welcome, accept," from Latin recipere "regain, take back, bring back, carry back, recover; take to oneself, take in, admit," from re- "back," though the exact sense here is obscure (see re-) + -cipere, combining form of capere "to take" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp").
From c. 1300 as "welcome (in a specified manner)." From early 14c. as "catch in the manner of a receptacle." From mid-14c. as "obtain as one's reward." From late 14c. as "accept as authoritative or true;" also late 14c. as "have a blow or wound inflicted." Radio and (later) television sense is attested from 1908. Related: Received; receiving. Receiving line is by 1933.
Other obsolete English verbs from the same Latin word in different forms included recept "to receive, take in" (early 15c., recepten, from Old French recepter, variant of receter and Latin receptus). Also compare receipt, which also had a verb form in Middle English, receiten.
late 14c., recommenden, "praise, present as worthy; commit (to another) for care or protection," from Medieval Latin recommendare, from Latin re-, here perhaps an intensive prefix, or else from a sense now obscure (see re-), + commendare "commit to one's care, commend" (see commend). Meaning "advise as to action, urge" (that something be done) is from 1746. Related: Recommended; recommending.
c. 1300, recoveren, "to regain consciousness," also "regain health or strength after sickness, injury, etc.," from Anglo-French rekeverer (13c.), Old French recovrer "come back, return; regain health; procure, get again" (11c.), from Medieval Latin recuperare "to recover" (source of Spanish recobrar, Italian ricoverare; see recuperation).
The sense of "get (anything) back, get or regain possession or control of," literally or figuratively, after it has been lost, is attested from mid-14c. In law, "obtain by judgment or legal proceedings," late 14c. The transitive sense of "restore from sickness, restore (another) to health" is from c. 1600; that of "rescue, save from danger" is from 1610s. Related: Recovered; recovering. To recover arms (1680s) is to bring the piece from the position of "aim" to that of "ready."