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rage (n.)

c. 1300, "madness, insanity; fit of frenzy; rashness, foolhardiness, intense or violent emotion, anger, wrath; fierceness in battle; violence" (of storms, fire, etc.), from Old French rage, raige "spirit, passion, rage, fury, madness" (11c.), from Medieval Latin rabia, from Latin rabies "madness, rage, fury," related to rabere "be mad, rave" (compare rabies, which originally had this sense). This is said by some sources to be from PIE *rebh- "violent, impetuous" (source also of Old English rabbian "to rage"), but de Vaan finds this uncertain and sees no convincing etymology.

Similarly, Welsh (cynddaredd) and Breton (kounnar) words for "rage, fury" originally meant "hydrophobia" and are compounds based on the word for "dog" (Welsh ci, plural cwn; Breton ki).

It is attested from late 14c. in the sense of "fit of carnal lust or sexual desire." In 15c.-16c. it also could mean "rabies." Other Middle English senses, now obsolete, include "come to a boil; grieve, mourn, lament; flirt, make love." The rage "fashion, vogue" dates from 1785.

rage (v.)

mid-13c., ragen, "to play, romp," from rage (n.). Original sense now obsolete. Meanings "be furious; speak passionately; go mad" are attested from early 14c. Of things "be violently driven or agitated," from 1530s. Related: Raged; raging.

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Definitions of rage from WordNet
1
rage (n.)
a feeling of intense anger;
his face turned red with rage
Synonyms: fury / madness
rage (n.)
a state of extreme anger;
she fell into a rage and refused to answer
rage (n.)
something that is desired intensely;
his rage for fame destroyed him
Synonyms: passion
rage (n.)
violent state of the elements;
the sea hurled itself in thundering rage against the rocks
rage (n.)
an interest followed with exaggerated zeal;
it was all the rage that season
Synonyms: fad / craze / furor / furore / cult
2
rage (v.)
behave violently, as if in state of a great anger;
Synonyms: ramp / storm
rage (v.)
be violent; as of fires and storms;
rage (v.)
feel intense anger;
From wordnet.princeton.edu