Etymology
Advertisement

Words related to radical

*wrād- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "branch, root."

It forms all or part of: deracinate; eradicate; eradication; irradicable; licorice; radical; radicant; radicle; radicular; radish; ramada; ramify; ramus; rhizoid; rhizome; rhizophagous; root; rutabaga; wort.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek rhiza, Lesbian brisda "root," Greek hradamnos "branch;" Latin radix) "root, radish;" Gothic waurts, Old English wyrt; Welsh gwraidd, Old Irish fren "root."

Advertisement
empiricism (n.)

"reliance on direct experience and observation rather than on theory;" 1650s, originally in a medical sense, from empiric + -ism. The original medical sense was depreciative: "quackery; the pretension of an ignorant person to medical skill." The depreciative quality carried over later into the general sense of "reliance on direct observation rather than theory," especially an undue reliance on mere individual experience. In reference to a philosophical doctrine which regards experience as the only source of knowledge from 1796.

Were I obliged to give a short name to the attitude in question, I should call it that of radical empiricism, in spite of the fact that such brief nicknames are nowhere more misleading than in philosophy. I say 'empiricism' because it is contented to regard its most assured conclusions concerning matters of fact as hypotheses liable to modification in the course of future experience; and I say 'radical,' because it treats the doctrine of monism itself as an hypothesis, and, unlike so much of the half way empiricism that is current under the name of positivism or agnosticism or scientific naturalism, it does not dogmatically affirm monism as something with which all experience has got to square. The difference between monism and pluralism is perhaps the most pregnant of all the differences in philosophy. [William James, preface to "The Sentiment of Rationality" in "The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy," 1897]
rad (n.)

1918, "x-ray dose unit," a shortened form of radiation (q.v.). The meaning "unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation" is by 1954, an acronym from radiation absorbed dose. As shortened form of radical (n.), it is attested in political slang from 1820. Teen slang adjectival sense of "extraordinary, wonderful" is from late 1970s (see radical (adj.)).

radicalism (n.)

"state or character of being radical," in any sense, 1819, from radical (adj.) + -ism. Originally, and especially, in the political sense of "holding or carrying out of extreme principles on any subject."

radicality (n.)

"state or character of being radical," in any sense, 1640s, from radical (adj.) + -ity.

radicalize (v.)

1820, transitive, "make radical, cause to conform to radical ideals," from radical (adj.) + -ize. Intransitive sense of "become radical" is by 1828. Related: Radicalized; radicalizing.

radically (adv.)

early 15c., radicali, "originally, from the roots or sources," from radical (adj.) + -ly (2). Sense of "thoroughly" is by c. 1600.

radicalness (n.)

"state of being radical," in any sense, 1650s, from radical (adj.) + -ness.

root (n.)

"underground, downward-growing part of a plant," late Old English rōt and in part from a Scandinavian cognate akin to Old Norse rot "root," figuratively "cause, origin," from Proto-Germanic *wrot (source also of Old English wyrt "root, herb, plant," Old High German wurz, German Wurz "a plant," Gothic waurts "a root," with characteristic Scandinavian loss of -w- before -r-), from PIE root *wrād- "branch, root" (source of wort and radical). The usual Old English words for "root" were wyrttruma and wyrtwala.

Figurative use, "source of a quality or condition," is from late 12c. Of the base parts of teeth, hair, etc., from early 13c. Mathematical sense is from 1550s. Philological sense from 1520s. Slang meaning "penis" is recorded from 1846. In African-American vernacular use, "a spell effected by magical properties of roots," by 1935. The sense of "person considered as the source or offspring of a family or clan" is by early 14c., chiefly biblical.

For coveteousnes is the rote of all evylle, which whill some lusted after, they erde from the feyth, and tanglyd themselves with many sorowes. [I Timothy vi in Tyndale, 1526]

To take root is from mid-15c. as "settle in the ground," hence figurative use (by 1530s). Root beer, made from the extracts of various roots (sarsaparilla, sassafras, etc.), is recorded by 1841, American English; root doctor is from 1821. Roots "established ties with a locality or region; one's background or cultural origins" is by 1921.