Etymology
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question (n.)

early 13c., questioun, "philosophical or theological problem" (especially when phrased as an interrogative statement), early 14c. as "utterance meant to elicit an answer or discussion," also as "a difficulty, a doubt," from Anglo-French questiun, Old French question "question, difficulty, problem; legal inquest, interrogation, torture," and directly from Latin quaestionem (nominative quaestio) "a seeking, a questioning, inquiry, examining, judicial investigation," noun of action from past-participle stem of quaerere "ask, seek" (see query (v.)).

Also in Middle English "verbal contention, debate; legal proceedings, litigation, accusation." Phrase a question of meaning "a dispute about" is from early 15c.

No question "undoubtedly" is from mid-15c; no questions asked "accountability not required" is from 1879 (especially in newspaper advertisements seeking the return of something lost or stolen). To be out of the question (c. 1700) is to be not pertinent to the subject, hence "not to be considered." To be in question "under discussion or consideration" is from 1610s.

Question mark is from 1849, sometimes also question stop (1862), earlier interrogation point (1590s). The figurative sense of "something about which there is uncertainty or doubt" is from 1869.  

question (v.)

late 15c., questiounen, "to inquire, ask, seek to know," from question (n.) and from Old French questioner "ask questions, interrogate, torture" (13c.), from question (n.). Hence "to dispute, doubt," by 1530s. Transitive sense of "inquire of by asking questions" is from late 15c. Related: Questioned; questioning. Alternative verb questionize is attested from 1847.

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Definitions of question
1
question (n.)
an instance of questioning;
there was a question about my training
question (n.)
the subject matter at issue;
the question of disease merits serious discussion
Synonyms: head
question (n.)
a sentence of inquiry that asks for a reply;
he asked a direct question
Synonyms: interrogation / interrogative / interrogative sentence
question (n.)
uncertainty about the truth or factuality or existence of something;
there is no question about the validity of the enterprise
Synonyms: doubt / dubiousness / doubtfulness
question (n.)
a formal proposal for action made to a deliberative assembly for discussion and vote;
she called for the question
Synonyms: motion
question (n.)
an informal reference to a marriage proposal;
he was ready to pop the question
2
question (v.)
challenge the accuracy, probity, or propriety of;
We must question your judgment in this matter
Synonyms: oppugn / call into question
question (v.)
pose a series of questions to;
The suspect was questioned by the police
We questioned the survivor about the details of the explosion
Synonyms: interrogate
question (v.)
pose a question;
Synonyms: query
question (v.)
conduct an interview in television, newspaper, and radio reporting;
Synonyms: interview
question (v.)
place in doubt or express doubtful speculation;
Synonyms: wonder
From wordnet.princeton.edu