Etymology
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quartile (n.)

mid-15c., originally in astrology and astronomy in the phrase quartile aspect in reference to celestial bodies when 90 degrees apart in longitude; see quartile (adj.). In statistics, from 1879.

quartile (adj.)

mid-15c., "90 degrees apart" (of the relative position of two heavenly bodies in astronomical measurements), from Old French quartil, from Medieval Latin quartilus "of a quartile," from Latin quartus "the fourth, fourth part" (related to quattuor "four," from PIE root *kwetwer- "four").

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Definitions of quartile

quartile (n.)
(statistics) any of three points that divide an ordered distribution into four parts each containing one quarter of the scores;
From wordnet.princeton.edu