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quarry (n.1)

[what is hunted] early 14c., quirre "entrails of deer placed on the hide and given to dogs of the chase as a reward," from Anglo-French quirreie, Old French cuiriee "the spoil, quarry" (Modern French curée), altered (by influence of Old French cuir "skin," from Latin corium "hide"), from Old French corée "viscera, entrails," from Vulgar Latin *corata "entrails," from Latin cor "heart" (from PIE root *kerd- "heart").

The original meaning is obsolete. The sense of "beast of the chase when pursued or slain in a hunt" is by 1610s, also "any object of eager pursuit;" earlier "bird targeted by a hawk or other raptor" (late 15c.).

quarry (n.2)

"open place where rocks are excavated," late 14c., quarrei (mid-13c. as a place name), from Medieval Latin quareia, a dissimilation of quarreria (mid-13c.), literally "place where stones are squared," from Latin quadrare "to make square," related to quadrus "a square," quattuor "four" (from PIE root *kwetwer- "four"). Quarry-faced, of building stones, is "rough-faced, as though taken right from the quarry" (1849).

The word mine is generally applied to the excavations from which metals, metalliferous ores, and coal are taken ; from quarries are taken all the various materials used for building, as marble, freestone, slate, lime, cement, rock, etc. A quarry is usually open to the day : a mine is generally covered, communicating with the surface by one or more shafts. [Century Dictionary]

quarry (v.)

"to dig or take from a quarry," 1774, from quarry (n.2). Related: Quarried; quarrying.

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Definitions of quarry from WordNet
1
quarry (n.)
a person who is the aim of an attack (especially a victim of ridicule or exploitation) by some hostile person or influence;
Synonyms: prey / target / fair game
quarry (n.)
a surface excavation for extracting stone or slate;
a British term for `quarry' is `stone pit'
Synonyms: pit / stone pit
quarry (n.)
animal hunted or caught for food;
Synonyms: prey
2
quarry (v.)
extract (something such as stones) from or as if from a quarry;
quarry marble
From wordnet.princeton.edu