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Puritanism (n.)

"strictness of religious life," 1570s, from Puritan + -ism. Originally in reference to specific doctrines and practices; from 1590s of excessive moral strictness generally. In this last sense it was famously defined by H.L. Mencken (1920) as "the haunting fear that someone, somewhere may be happy."

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Definitions of Puritanism from WordNet

Puritanism (n.)
the beliefs and practices characteristic of Puritans (most of whom were Calvinists who wished to purify the Church of England of its Catholic aspects);
Puritanism (n.)
strictness and austerity in conduct and religion;
From wordnet.princeton.edu