"pertaining or belonging to Provence," the former province of southeastern France, 1580s, from French Provençal, from Provence (see Provence). As a name of the region's Romanic language (the dialect of the troubadours), from 1640s. In reference to a style of cooking, attested from 1841. Sometimes also Provencial; Middle English had Provinciales "men from Provence" (early 14c.).