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proof (n.)

c. 1200, preove "evidence and argumentation to establish the fact of (something) beyond reasonable doubt," from Anglo-French prove, preove, Old French proeve, prueve "proof, test, experience" (13c., Modern French preuve), from Late Latin proba "a proof," a back-formation from Latin probare "to prove" (see prove). "The devocalization of v to f ensued upon the loss of final e; cf. the relation of v and f in believe, belief, relieve, relief, behove, behoof, etc." [OED].

The meaning "act of proving" is early 14c. The meaning "act of testing or making trial of anything" is from late 14c., from influence of prove. Meaning "standard of strength of distilled liquor" is from 1705, on the notion of "having been tested as to degree of strength." The use in photography is from 1855. The typographical sense of "trial impression to test type" is from c. 1600. The numismatic sense of "coin struck to test a die" is from 1762; now mostly in reference to coins struck from highly polished dies, mainly for collectors.

The adjectival sense "impenetrable, able to resist" (as in proof against) is recorded from 1590s, from the noun in expressions such as proof of (mid-15c.), hence extended senses involving "of tested power against" in compounds such as fireproof (1630s), waterproof (1725), fool-proof (1902), etc. Shakespeare has shame-proof. Expression the proof is in the pudding (1915) is a curious perversion of earlier proof of the pudding shall be in the eating (1708), with proof in the sense "quality of proving good or turning out well" (17c.).

proof (v.)

1834, "to test," from proof (n.). From 1950 as short for proof-read (v.). Related: Proofed; proofing.

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Definitions of proof from WordNet
1
proof (n.)
any factual evidence that helps to establish the truth of something;
if you have any proof for what you say, now is the time to produce it
Synonyms: cogent evidence
proof (n.)
a formal series of statements showing that if one thing is true something else necessarily follows from it;
proof (n.)
a measure of alcoholic strength expressed as an integer twice the percentage of alcohol present (by volume);
proof (n.)
(printing) an impression made to check for errors;
Synonyms: test copy / trial impression
proof (n.)
a trial photographic print from a negative;
proof (n.)
the act of validating; finding or testing the truth of something;
2
proof (v.)
make or take a proof of, such as a photographic negative, an etching, or typeset;
proof (v.)
knead to reach proper lightness;
proof dough
proof (v.)
read for errors;
Synonyms: proofread
proof (v.)
activate by mixing with water and sometimes sugar or milk;
proof yeast
proof (v.)
make resistant (to harm);
proof the materials against shrinking in the dryer
3
proof (adj.)
(used in combination or as a suffix) able to withstand;
temptation-proof
From wordnet.princeton.edu